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Posterior Triangle

Posterior Triangle

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Published by Baraa'h AlSalamat

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Published by: Baraa'h AlSalamat on Feb 23, 2012
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03/07/2013

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1 |Page 
The first exam is delayed to Sun. 18/03/12 and the second examto Tus. 17/4/12.there will be a review lec. of the skull and the neck next weekTus. 28/02/12 so plz study well in the weekend to be prepared.In the previous lecture :
the muscles in the
neck are divided according to its function and location into3 groups:
The reference and superficial group: - 3 muscles (the superficial is the platezis,and the reference are 2 the trapezius and SCM)
Hyoid related group :( 4 supra and 4 infra hyoid) we call the infra hyoid groupthe strap muscles (
( زحا
 
The final group is related to the vertebral column (cervical vertebral muscles):consist of three groups:
-The anterior have 2 muscles (longus cavities and longus coli).
-Posterior group another 3 muscles (
levator scapulae
,
splenius capitis
andsemispinalis
capitis) =
> just names.
-The lateral group have 3 scalenus muscles (scalenus anterior, medius, andposterior) => we must know all details about them according the vertebral.
Posterior Triangle of The Neck(Lateral Cervical Region)
 
 
2 |Page 
NOW,
we will talk about the posterior triangle of the neck; we call it pos. Because
it’s behind the SCM but it’s actually representing at the lateral cervical region.
 -GUYS, when we speak about any region in anatomy we look to the boundaries,roof, floor and the contents of that area.
Let’s
start with
boundaries
:Pos. triangle located behind the SCM so the first border which is the
anterior
 border of the triangle is
SCM
(sternocleidomastoid muscle) and the
posterior
 border is the
trapezius muscle
.
Inferiorly
you have the
mid. third of the clavicle
-because the medial third is providing an attachment to SCM and the lateral thirdof the clavicle is providing an attachment for trapezius ,and the mid. third whichis the inferior border of the posterior triangle.
The roof:
is made by skin and fascia (superficial fascia, and the investing layer of the deep fascia).
The floor:
is made by prevertebral muscles (specifically the lateral and posteriorgroup) and the prevertebral fascia that cover them.
; the contents of posterior triangle are between the prevertebral fascia andinvesting fascia.-The prevertebral muscles which are the lateral and posterior group. The lateralgroup which is:
 
3 |Page 
The anterior scalenus,
 
medius scalenus,
posterior scalenus-Between the anterior and medial scalene there is opening called
“scalenehyeetus”
subclavian artery and brachial plexus pass through it.So the floor starts from down up:1- Anterior scalene.2- Medius scalene.3- Posterior scalene.4- Elevator scapulae then the bandage (
دضا
)
 –
the first one in posterior group5- Splenius capitis.6-semispinales capitis (we can see small of semispinalis at the apex of pos.triangle).
 
NOW;
we can divide the pos. triangle to two smaller triangles to simplify studyingit by a specific muscle which is
 
“inferior belly of omohyoid”
 Omohyoid have superior and inferior belly and its call like that because theomohyoid is one of the strap muscles it descend from the body of hyoid bone insuperior belly, it goes posterior to SCM since there is Intermediate
tendon
,omohyoid inter these tendon => these called the anterior belly in anterior trianglethen the inferior belly goes posterior and attach to the
upper border of thescapula
 
that’s why called omo =>>
 
omo means shoulder
 As Inferior belly goes to pos. triangle we take an advantage to subdivide theposterior triangle into two triangles:
The smaller one bellow the inferior belly of omohyoid called
omoclavicular or supraclavicular triangle”
another name forthis triangle
“subcalvian triangle”
because in its corner withinthese triangle we can see the subclavian artery and vein.
مهوركذتا
3
لنيرتا سفن ءا
 
So
 
 
omoclavicular trianglecuz its boundaries
 
Supraclavicular trianglecuz its location; superior toscapula
 
Subcalvian triangle cuz itscontents

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