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Compound Nouns

Compound Nouns

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Compound Nouns
A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. Most compound nounsin English are formed by nouns modified by other nouns or adjectives.For example:The words
tooth
and
 paste
are each nouns in their own right, but if you join them together they form a new word -
toothpaste
.The word
black 
is an adjective and
board 
is a noun, but if you join them together they forma new word -
blackboard 
.In both these example the first word modifies or describes the second word, telling us whatkind of object or person it is, or what its purpose is. And the second part identifies theobject or person in question.Compound nouns can also be formed using the following combinations of words:- Noun
+
 NountoothpasteAdjective
+
 Nounmonthly ticketVerb
+
 Nounswimming poolPreposition
+
 Noununderground Noun
+
Verbhaircut Noun
+
Prepositionhanger onAdjective
+
Verbdry-cleaningPreposition
+
VerboutputThe two parts may be written in a number of ways:-1. Sometimes the two words are joined together.Example:
tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom
2. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen.Example:
check-in
3. Sometimes they appear as two separate words.Example:
 full moon
A good dictionary will tell you how you should write each compound noun.A
is a word composed of more than onefree morpheme.
 
English compounds may be classified in several ways, such as theword classesor thesemanticrelationship of their components.
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[edit] Compound nouns
Most English compoundnounsare noun phrases (= nominal phrases) that include a nounmodified by adjectivesor attributive nouns. Due to the English tendency towards conversion, the two classes are not always easily distinguished. Most English compoundnouns that consist of more than two words can be constructedrecursively  by combining two words at a time. Combining 'science' and 'fiction', and then combining the resultingExamples by word class
ModifierHeadCompound
nounnounfootballadjectivenounblackboardverbnounbreakwate prepositionnoununderworldnounadjectivesnowwhiteadjectiveadjectiveblue-greenverbadjectivetumbledown prepositionadjectiveover-ripenounverbbrowbeatadjectiveverbhighlightverbverbfreeze-dry prepositionverbundercutnounprepositionlove-inadjectiveprepositionforthwithverbprepositiontakeout prepositionprepositionwithout
 
compound with 'writer', for example, can construct the compound 'science fiction writer'.Some compounds, such as
 salt and pepper 
or 
mother-of-pearl 
, cannot be constructed in thisway, however.
[edit] Types of compound nouns
Since English is a mostly analytic language, unlike most other Germanic languages, it creates compounds by concatenating words withoutcase markers. As in other Germaniclanguages, the compounds may be arbitrarily long. However, this is obscured by the factthat the written representation of long compounds always contains blanks. Shortcompounds may be written in three different ways, which do not correspond to different pronunciations, however:
The ‘solid’ or ‘closed’ forms in which two usually moderately short words appear together as one. Solid compounds most likely consist of short (monosyllabic
 
) unitsthat often have been established in the language for a long time. Examples are
housewife
,
lawsuit 
,
wallpaper 
, etc.
The
hyphenated 
form in which two or more words are connected by a hyphen. Compounds that contain affixes, such as
house-build(er)
and
 single-mind(ed)(ness)
,as well as adjective-adjective compounds and verb-verb compounds, such as
blue- green
and
 freeze-dry
, are often hyphenated. Compounds that contain articles, suchas
mother-of-pearl 
and
 salt-and-pepper 
, are also often hyphenated.
The
open
or 
 spaced 
form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer words,such as
distance learning 
,
 player piano
,
lawn tennis
, etc.Usage in the US and in the UK differs and often depends on the individual choice of thewriter rather than on a hard-and-fast rule; therefore, open, hyphenated, and closed formsmay be encountered for the same compound noun, such as the triplets
container  ship
/
container-ship
/
containership
and
 particle board 
/
 particle-board 
/
 particleboard 
.In addition to this native English compounding, there is the
type, which consistsof words derived from Latin, as
horticulture
, and those of Greek origin, such as
 photography
, the components of which are in  boundform (connected by connecting vowels, which are most often
-i-
and
-o-
in Latin and Greek respectively) and cannot standalone.'
[edit] Analyzability (transparency)
In general, the meaning of a compound noun is aspecializationof the meaning of its head.Themodifier limits the meaning of the head. This is most obvious in descriptive compounds, also known as
compounds, in which the modifier is used in anattributive or appositional manner. A
blackboard 
is a particular kind of board, which is(generally) black, for instance.Indeterminative compounds, however, the relationship is not attributive. For example, a
 footstool 
is not a particular type of stool that is like a foot. Rather, it is a
 stool for one's foot 

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