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Turi. Category Theory

Turi. Category Theory

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Category Theory Lecture Notes
Daniele TuriLaboratory for Foundations of Computer ScienceUniversity of EdinburghSeptember 1996 – December 2001
 
Prologue
These notes, developed over a period of six years, were written for an eighteen lecturescourse in category theory. Although heavily based on Mac Lane’s
Categories for the WorkinMathematician 
, the course was designed to be self-contained, drawing most of the examplesfrom category theory itself.The course was intended for post-graduate students in theoretical computer science at theLaboratory for Foundations of Computer Science, University of Edinburgh, but was attendedby a varied audience. Most sections are a reasonable account of the material presentedduring the lectures, but some, most notably the sections on Lawvere theories, topoi and Kanextensions, are little more than a collection of definitions and facts.
Contents
Introduction 11 Universal Problems 1
1.1 Natural Numbers in set theory and category theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Universals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Basic Notions 7
2.1 Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2 Functors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3 Initial and Final Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4 Comma Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3 Universality 114 Natural Transformations and Functor Categories 145 Colimits 18
5.1 Coproducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185.2 Coequalisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185.3 Pushouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195.4 Initial objects as universal arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205.5 Generalised Coproducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.6 Finite Colimits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.7 Colimits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23ii
 
6 Duality and Limits 25
6.1 Universal arrows from a functor to an object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256.2 Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266.3 Equalisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266.4 Pullbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276.5 Monos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286.6 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7 Adjunctions 31
7.1 From Universal Arrows to Adjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317.2 Adjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347.3 From Adjunctions to Universal Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357.4 Adjoints for Preorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8 Preservation of Limits and Colimits 399 Monads 41
9.1 Algebras of a Monad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419.2 Comparison Functors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439.3 Free Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10 Lawvere Theories 4511 Cartesian Closed Categories 48
11.1 Curry-Howard-Lawvere Isomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12 Variable Sets and Yoneda Lemma 5013 Set theory without sets 53
13.1 Subobject Classiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5313.2 Topoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
14 Kan Extensions 5515 2-Categories 56Further Reading 57
iii

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