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Marker. Descriptive Set Theory

Marker. Descriptive Set Theory

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Descriptive Set Theory
David MarkerFall 2002
Contents
I Classical Descriptive Set Theory 2
1 Polish Spaces 22 Borel Sets 143 Effective Descriptive Set Theory: The Arithmetic Hierarchy 274 Analytic Sets 345 Coanalytic Sets 436 Determinacy 547 Hyperarithmetic Sets 62
II Borel Equivalence Relations 73
8 Π
11
-Equivalence Relations 739 Tame Borel Equivalence Relations 8210 Countable Borel Equivalence Relations 8711 Hypernite Equivalence Relations 92
1
 
These are informal notes for a course in Descriptive Set Theory given atthe University of Illinois at Chicago in Fall 2002. While I hope to give a fairlybroad survey of the subject we will be concentrating on problems about groupactions, particularly those motivated by Vaught’s conjecture. Kechris’
Classical Descriptive Set Theory 
is the main reference for these notes.Notation: If 
A
is a set,
A
is the set of all finite sequences from
A
. Suppose
σ
= (
a
0
,...,a
m
)
A
and
b
A
. Then
σ
 
b
is the sequence (
a
0
,...,a
m
,b
).We let
denote the empty sequence. If 
σ
A
, then
|
σ
|
is the length of 
σ
. If 
:
N
A
, then
|
n
is the sequence (
(0)
,...,f 
(
n
1)).If 
is any set,
(
), the power set of 
is the set of all subsets
.If 
is a metric space,
x
and
 >
0, then
B
(
x
) =
{
y
:
d
(
x,y
)
< 
}
is the open ball of radius
around
x
.
Part I
Classical Descriptive Set Theory
1 Polish Spaces
Definition 1.1
Let
be a topological space. We say that
is
metrizable
if there is a metric
d
such that the topology is induced by the metric. We say that
is
separable
if there is a countable dense subset.A
Polish space
is a separable topological space that is metrizable by a com-plete metric.There are many classical examples of Polish spaces. Simple examples include
R
n
,
C
n
,
I
= [0
,
1], the unit circle
T
, and
Q
n p
, where
Q
 p
is the
p
-adic field.
Example 1.2
Countable discrete sets are Polish Spaces.
Let
be a countable set with the discrete topology. The metric
d
(
x,y
) =
0 if 
x
=
y
1 if 
x
=
y
is a complete metric inducing the topology.If 
d
is a metric on
, then
 
d
(
x,y
) =
d
(
x,y
)1 +
d
(
x,y
)is also a metric,
d
and
d
induce the same topology and
d
(
x,y
)
<
1 for all
x
.
Example 1.3
If 
0
,
1
,...
are Polish spaces, then 
n
is a Polish space.
2
 
Suppose
d
n
is a complete metric on
n
, with
d
n
<
1, for
n
= 0
,
1
,...
. Define
 
d
on
n
by
 
d
(
f,g
) =
n
=0
12
n
+1
d
n
(
(
n
)
,g
(
n
))
.
If 
0
,
1
,...
is a Cauchy-sequence, then
1
(
i
)
,
2
(
i
)
,...
is a Cauchy-sequencein
i
for each
i
. Let
g
(
n
) = lim
i
→∞
i
(
n
). Then
g
is the limit of 
0
,
1
,...
.Suppose
x
i
0
,x
i
1
,...
is a dense subset of 
i
. For
σ
N
let
σ
(
n
) =
x
nσ
(
n
)
if 
i <
|
σ
|
x
n
0
otherwise
.
The
{
σ
:
σ
N
}
is dense in
.In particular, the
Hilbert cube
H
=
I
N
is Polish. Indeed, it is a universalPolish space.
Theorem 1.4
Every Polish space is homeomorphic to a subspace of 
H
.
Proof 
Let
be a Polish space. Let
d
be a compatible metric on
with
d <
1and let
x
0
,x
1
,...
a dense set. Let
:
H
by
(
x
) = (
d
(
x,x
1
)
,d
(
x,x
2
)
,...
).If 
d
(
x,y
)
< /
2, then
|
d
(
x,x
i
)
d
(
y,x
i
)
|
<
and
d
(
(
x
)
,
(
y
))
<
12
n
+1
< 
.Thus
is continuous. If 
d
(
x,y
) =
choose
x
i
such that
d
(
x,x
i
)
< /
2. Then
d
(
y,x
i
)
> /
2, so
(
x
)
=
(
y
).We need to show that
1
is continuous. Let
>
0. Choose
n
such that
d
(
x,x
n
)
< /
3. I
|
y
x
n
|
>
2
/
3, then
d
(
(
x
)
,
(
y
))
13(2
n
+1
)
. Thus i
d
(
(
x
)
,
(
y
))
<
13(2
n
+1
)
, then
d
(
x,y
)
< 
. Hence
1
is continuous.Function spaces provide other classical examples of Polish spaces. Let
(
I
)be the continuous real-valued functions on
I
, with
d
(
f,g
) = sup
{|
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
|
:
x
I
}
. Because any Cauchy sequence converges uniformly,
d
is complete. Anyfunction in
can be approximated by a piecewise linear function defined over
Q
. Thus
(
I
) is separable.More generally, if 
is a compact metric space and
is a Polish spacelet
(
X,
) be the space of continuous functions from
to
with metric
d
(
f,g
) = sup
{|
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
|
:
x
}
.Other classical examples include the spaces
l
 p
,
l
and
L
 p
from functionalanalysis.The next two lemmas will be useful in many results. If 
is a metric spaceand
, the diameter of 
is diam (
) = sup
{
d
(
x,y
) :
x,y
}
Lemma 1.5
Suppose
is a Polish space and 
0
1
2
...
are closed subsets of 
such that 
lim
n
→∞
diam (
n
) = 0
. Then there is
x
such that 
n
=
{
x
}
.
Proof 
Choose
x
n
n
. Since diam (
n
)
0, (
x
n
) is a Cauchy sequence. Let
x
be the limit of (
x
n
). Since each
n
is closed
x
n
. Since diam (
n
)
0,if 
y
n
, then
x
=
y
.3

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