was performed transversally to the welding direction, without
previouslygrinding the surface, and with 3 different levels of heat input (6.0, 2.3 and 1.3 kJ/cm). Atungsten -2 % thoria electrode with a diameter of 2,4 mm and an angle of 60°at the tipwas used.
The HVOF and arc sprayed coatings were applied to carbon steel
ata thickness of 300 to 400 µm. For HVOF spraying a Diamond Jet Hybrid system, usinghydrogen, and a JP-5000 system using kerosene as fuel were employed. Arc sprayingwas conducted with a OSU LD/U2 spray gun using compressed air for atomization. Thecomposition of the materials sprayed is presented in table 3.
Cavitation Erosion Tests:
The cavitation erosion experiments were carried out by
usinga vibratory apparatus according to ASTM G 32
. The standardized test basically consistsof measuring the weight or volume loss of a 15.9 mm-diameter test specimen affixed tothe tip of an ultrasonic horn that pulsates in a distilled water bath at a frequency of 20
0.2 kHz over an amplitude of 50 µm (peak to peak). The temperature of the water bath ismaintained at 22
C. In the present investigations a modified procedure, illustrated infigure 1, was used
, which facilitates the sample preparation. The test specimen wasplaced in a distance of 0.5 mm opposite to the vibrating steel disc immersed 8 to 10 mm indistilled water. Specimen weight loss was periodically measured up to a total of 45 h.Cavitation rates obtained from this modified testing procedure usually show 40-50% of therates determined with the standardized procedure.
To study the erosion mechanism, the surface and cross sections of
thesamples were examined before and after erosion testing by optical and scanning
electron microscopy (SEM). The grain size was determined according to ASTM E112
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Cavitation Erosion Resistance:
Weld claddings of conventional AWS 309 and 316 stainless steels show a relative shortincubation period of 2 h, while in special resistant Co-alloyed weld claddings significanterosion started only after 8 h, achieving in the permanent period an almost constant ratein the range of 0.4-0.7 mg/h (table 4). This high resistance to cavitation erosion iscomparable to that of Stellite 6, as the reported erosion rate of 1.2 mg/h for this material,determined with the standardized method
corresponds to about 0.5- 0.7 mg/h for themodified testing procedure used in this investigation.
The use of a robotic cell for GMAW, as compared to manual SMAW, turned out asadvantageous not only for the operational process, but also for the behaviour of thecladding against the cavitation erosion. Due to the automation of the pulsed arc GMAW abetter control of possible welding defects and a good surface planicity could be achievedeven in the overhead position, which reduced the time and costs for surface grinding andfinishment work
. The cladding deposited with thermal pulsation (PT) showed anincrease in the incubation period (12 h) as compared to the conventional welding condition(PN). The waving of the torch brought an additional increase in the cavitation resistance ofthe weld cladding: a higher incubation period (20 h) and a lower erosion rate (0.3 mg/h)(figure 2).
TIG-remelting of the weld cladding brought besides an improvement of the surfaceplanicity the best results in the cavitation test: a grain refined layer about 1.5 to 2.0 mmthick showed a high incubation period and the lowest erosion rate (0.3 mg/h).
By the other side a rough surface (as grinded condition) and porosity had a deleteriousinfluence on the cavitation resistance, reducing and even suppressing the incubationperiod, which results in a higher loss of material, by an erosion rate in the permanentstage of approximately 0.5 mg/h (figure 2).