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8_Titration of Vinegar

8_Titration of Vinegar

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Published by Marie Spencer Dunn

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Published by: Marie Spencer Dunn on Feb 24, 2012
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Chem 121 Titration of Vinegar M. DunnTitration of Vinegar with Sodium Hydroxide
Objective:
Find the concentration of acetic acid (HC
2
H
3
O
2
) in a sample of vinegar by titration with asolution of Sodium Hydroxide of known concentration.
Background
Titration is a method used to calculate the concentration of a solution. A reaction is performed in whicha solution of known concentration is added to a solution of unknown concentration. The volume of both solutions must be carefully measured.We have learned that the moles of 
solute
in a solution can be calculated if the concentration (M) andvolume (L) of the solution are known.
)(solutionof Liter )(soluteof moles )(
VnM
 Molarity
(Equation 1)Moles = M X V (Equation 2)In this experiment, a sodium hydroxide solution of known molarity is contained in a
buret,
and theacetic acid solution (aka Vinegar) of unknown concentration is contained in an
erlenmeyer flask
. SeeFigure 1. The sodium hydroxide reacts with the acetic acid according to the following equation:NaOH + HC
2
H
3
O
2
 
NaC
2
H
3
O
2
+ H
2
O (Equation 3)Notice that the stoichiometry from equation 3 indicates that the NaOH reacts with HC
2
H
3
O
2
in a one toone ratio. An
indicator
is used to tell when the titration is completed. Indicators are organizcompounds that change color at a specific solution pH. The
end point
of the titration is a point
slightly 
 past the
equivalence point
- where moles of base added equals the moles of added acid (equation 4)Moles of NaOH = Moles of HC
2
H
3
O
2
(Equation 4)
 
Chem 121 Titration of Vinegar M. DunnWe can combine Equations 2 and Equations 4 to establish the relationship between the concentrationsof the two solutions.(M
NaOH
)(V
NaOH
= (M
HC2H3O2
)(V
HC2H3O2
) (Equation 5)Equation 5 gives us the means to calculated the concentration (M) of the acetic acid solution.
Pre-Lab Question:
View the Carolina Video on titration.Take notes on proper titration set up and technique. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=sFpFCPTDv2w)
 Procedure:
1.
 
Obtain approximately 50 mL of vinegar sample in a clean, dry 150-mL beaker. The beaker mustbe dry or you will dilute the vinegar!2.
 
Carefully pipet 10.00 mL of the vinegar solution into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Your instructorwill demonstrate proper pipet technique.3.
 
Add approximately 40 mL of deionized water to your Erlenmeyer flask.4.
 
Add 2 or 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator
to the solution. DON’T FORGET THE INDICATOR!More isn’t better. Two or three drops is perfect!
 5.
 
From the pump station obtain sodium hydroxide solution. Prepare your buret for the solutionby rinsing. Your instructor will demonstrate how to use the pump and how to properly preparea buret for titration.6.
 
After you’ve prepared your buret, fill the buret with approximately 40 mL of sodium hydroxide
(two pumps of the dispenser). Remember to close the stopcock first! You do NOT need to fillthe buret to the very top. Make sure there is no air bubble in the tip.7.
 
Return your buret to the buret stand. Record your initial buret reading to the nearest 0.01 mL.Use a
reading card
to help read the meniscus. A
reading card
is simply a dark object heldbehind the meniscus. You should take the reading eye-level to the meniscus.8.
 
Have your instructor approve your setup before beginning your first titration.9.
 
Titrate your first sample. The first sample can be done quickly and the end-point overshot. Thisfirst titration is to establish approximately the volume necessary to reach the end-point.10.
 
Record the final buret reading to the nearest 0.01 mL. Use a Discard the titrated solution andprepare another sample for titration by repeating steps 2-4.11.
 
Repeat the titration AT LEAST three more times. Each partner MUST perform a titration. Makesure you have enough NaOH in the buret to complete the next titration. Quickly add sodiumhydroxide with 1 or 2 mL of what was required from your first titration. Then slow way down asyou approach the end point. Extra credit will be awarded to the team with the
best
end point.
Best
end point is defined as the palest, yet persistent, pink color.12.
 
When all titrations are done, drain the solution from the buret into the waste beaker anddiscard. Clean the pipet and buret using standard procedures.

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