and weight of both tractor and implement, (resulting in atractor of considerably higher powerlweight ratio thanhitherto) due, on the one hand, to the fact that the weightrequired for traction no longer needed to be all built intothe tractor, and, on the other hand, to the elimination ofload-carrying wheels and mechanical lifting gear from theimplement.Fig.
illustrates the contrast between a trailed ploughand a mounted plough.
can be seen, the reduction inironmongery is quite considerable. This, together with thespectacular improvement in manoeuvrability and compact-ness of the tractors-implement combination, effected aconsiderable improvement in operating efficiency, as well
reducing initial and running costs.
TRACTOR AND EQUIPMENT
The agricultural tractor is essentially a prime mover, andthe
remarkable thing about it is the linkage andhydraulic system that couples it to the implement. Inconsidering
feature in some detail, we shall approachit from two aspects; firstly, concerning the effect producedon the tractor and implement; secondly, the operation ofthe control system itself.
will help to appreciate the effect of mounting tillageimplements on the tractor, if the forces acting on
tractordrawn plough are considered. Although
is by no meansthe simplest implement to choose for the purpose, the factthat
has, in some form or other, always been the basictillage implement, and exercised the greatest influence on
Fig. 46. Typical values and locations
conditions with a
in. plough cutting6t-7 in. deep
the early stages of development of mounted implements,makes it a logical choice.Fig.
shows a typical mouldboard plough bottom orbase, and
represents the resultant of all useful
forces acting upon the base, shown only in a vertical planeparallel to the direction of travel. Side forces will be ignoredfor the purpose of this analysis, and it will be appreciatedthat the magnitude and location
will vary according tothe shape of the plough base and characteristics of the soil.
LINE OF PULL
Fig. 47. Force relations, in
trailedimplement receiving no support
shows the forces acting, in a vertical plane, on atrailed 3-furrow plough, receiving
support from thetractor. In this and succeeding diagrams the followingsymbols have been used
the resultant of
useful forces acting upon theimplement, in a vertical, longitudinal plane;
theresultant of all parasitic forces acting upon the implement,in a vertical, longitudinal plane;
the resultant pullexerted on the implement by the tractor, in a vertical,longitudinal plane;
he weight of the implement, actingthrough the centre of gravity; and
the point of concur-rence of
and the resultant of
AB is the resultant of
and thelocation of
is established by the intersection of AB andthe line of pull, which passes through the hitch point
onthe tractor, and the hitch point
on the plough.
includes the vertical support forces and longitudinalfriction forces and/or rolling resistance.
will readily be seen that changes in hitch adjustment
produce a change
the location of
shows a desirable hitch setting, while
example of an extremely bad hitch adjust-ment in which
is almost under thefront wheels of the plough. Owing to lack of weight on therear
the plough in
condition, the implement will bevery unstable.The most commonly used hitch for mounted implementsis the three-point hitch with converging