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Mathematical Modeling of Heat Conduction &amp; Diffusion

Mathematical Modeling of Heat Conduction &amp; Diffusion

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11/03/2012

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Chapter 1
Introduction to Heat Conduction and Mass Diﬀusion
1 Engineering Analysis of Heat Conduction Problems
Heat transfer engineers investigate the rate of transport of thermal energy in engineeringsystems. Heat conduction is the primary thermal energy transport mechanism in solidsystems. Energy is transported through solid materials when temperature gradients existinside them. Energy moves from atom to atom by phononic as well as electronic interactions.This process is known as heat conduction. Let us consider a few selected examples of practicalsituations involving conduction heat transfer processes.A common processing method using in the metallurgical industry is continuous casting.Steel, copper and aluminum are routinely produced using this technology. The process isused to convert reﬁned liquid metal into solidiﬁed ingot. Liquid metal is poured into a chilledreciprocating mold on one end and the (partially solidiﬁed) ingot is extracted on the otherend. For the metal to freeze heat must be conducted through the solidiﬁed shell in contactwith the mold and though the mold wall. Continuous casting engineers are interested incontrolling the rate of solidiﬁcation in order to avoid metallurgical defects or catastrophicbreakouts.In the manufacture of jet engines, turbine disks are mill annealed by heating and main-taining them at a selected temperature and subsequent air cooling. The treatment leadsto optimal metallurgical structure and properties in the ﬁnished component. Heat treatingengineers are interested in controlling the rates of heating and cooling during heat treatmentin order to optimize the resulting component properties.Thermal energy is internally generated in microelectronic devices by the electric currentpassing through them. The resulting heat must be dissipated to prevent malfunction of thedevice. Microelectronic engineers want to determine conduction heat transfer rates insidemicroelectronic packages in order to produce reliable designs.Metal components can be joined or heat treated using high density energy sources. Ap-propriate sources are laser and electron beams. As the beam impinges on the joint it produces1
Ernesto Gutierrez-Miravete/ Rensselaer HartfordUniversity

localized melting of the material. Heat dissipation by conduction into the surrounding mate-rial produces rapid solidiﬁcation of the weld. Welding engineers are interested in controllingthe size and shape of the molten pool in order to obtain optimal properties in the ﬁnished joint.Pressurized water nuclear reactors produce energy by radioactive disintegration of ce-ramic ﬁssile material contained inside fuel rods. The generated energy is conducted throughthe cladding of the fuel pin and transferred onto a primary water circuit for subsequenttransfer onto a steam circuit. Nuclear engineers are interested in controlling the rate of con-duction heat transfer through the cladding in order to prevent its potentially catastrophicfailure.Perishable foodstuﬀs can be preserved by freezing. The food is frozen by refrigeration atsuﬃciently low temperature. Since the freezing rate aﬀects the desirable characteristics of the food, food engineers are interested in controlling the freezing process in order to obtainoptimal food characteristics such as ﬂavor and nutritional value.Another reason to undetake the study of conduction heat transfer is that the fundamentalnotion involved (energy conservation) has important analogues in other physical systems of considerable interest. Speciﬁcally, the principle of mass conservation is used to formulateand solve problems in diﬀusional mass transfer and the principles of conservation of massand momentum are the foundation of ﬂuid mechanics. Much of the intuition and insightacquired from a study of conduction heat transfer can be utilized to advantage when studyingdiﬀusion and ﬂuid ﬂow.Furthermore, the mathematics of heat conduction has also important applications in thestudy of brownian motion, probability theory and in ﬁnancial investment theory.The mathematical fomulation of heat conduction problems is based on the
principle of conservation of energy
which is the statement of the thermal energy balance inside a bodycontaining temperature gradients. This is now discussed in detail.
1.1 The Diﬀerential Thermal Energy Balance Equation
The energy conservation equation is a diﬀerential statement of the thermal energy balancein a body under study. The thermal energy content
(
) of a material body can changeonly if
energy is removed/added through its bounding surface or
energy is generated or absorbed within the body.Consider a small volume element
inside a material undergoing heat conduction pro-cesses. The rate of change of thermal energy
per unit volume
(in
J/m
3
s
) at a pointinside the volume is1
∂E ∂t
=
∂H ∂t
2

where
enthalpy
of the material (in
J/m
3
) is the amount of thermal energy per unit volume
E/V
. From thermodynamics, the following relationship expresses the accumulated enthalpyin a material resulting from increasing its temperature from
1
to
2
,
=

2
1
ρC
p
dT
where
ρ
and
p
are, respectively the density (in
kg/m
3
) and speciﬁc heat (in
J/kgK
) of thematerial. More complex
relationships are also possible.Introducing the above
relationship, the rate of change of thermal energy thenbecomes
∂H ∂t
=
ρC
p
∂T ∂t
Now, the net outﬂow of thermal energy through the bounding surface
A
of volume
isgiven by the divergence theorem as

A
q
·
n
dA
=

·
q
dV
where
q
is the
heat ﬂux vector
representing the amount of energy crossing through a unitboundary area per unit time (in
J/m
2
s
).Finally, the rate of internal heat generation/absorption at a point in the body (
J/m
3
s
)is assumed given as
g
(
r
,t
).The thermal energy balance equation for the volume
is then

∂H ∂tdV
=

[
−·
q
+
g
(
r
,t
)]
dV
However, since the integrals are equal the arguments are also equal and the most generalform of the diﬀerential thermal energy balance equation is
∂H ∂t
=
−·
q
+
g
(
r
,t
)This is called the
diﬀerential thermal energy balance equation
.
1.2 Constitutive Equation: The Heat Flux
Temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness potential at a point in a material andis a macroscopic manifestation of the total atomic (potential and kinetic) energies of theconstituent molecules. When temperature diﬀerences exist between two distinct points in amedium the result is the transport of thermal energy downhill the temperature gradient. Therate of energy transport has the units of energy per unit time (
J/s
=
). The amount of 3

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