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Table Of Contents

Introduction
Environmental Challenges in Developing Countries
1.1 The Millennium Development Goals and the Environment
1.2 The Importance of Environmental Monitoring
1.3 Agriculture
1.3.1 Rationale
1.3.2 Potential Applications
1.4 Air Pollution and Traffic
1.4.1 Potential Applications
1.7.2 A Recent and Growing Concern: Water Scarcity
1.8. INDIA TODAY: THE CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 13
1.7.3 The Specific Case of Karnataka
1.8 India Today: the Current Institutional Framework
1.8.1 States and Central Government
1.8.2 Local Institutions
1.9 Conclusion
New Opportunities for Environmental Monitoring and Agriculture
2.1 Usual Techniques
2.1.1 Stand-Alone Sensors
2.1.2 Laboratory Analysis
2.1.3 Remote Sensing
2.1.4 Telemetry
2.2 Wireless Sensor Networks
2.3. DESIGN DIMENSIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 19
2.3 Design Dimensions in Environmental Monitoring
2.4 Where Do WSNs Stand?
2.4.1 Wireless Networking
2.4.2 Self-Organization
2.4.3 Efficient Power Management
2.4.4 Modularity
2.5. SENSORS AND AGRICULTURE 23
2.4.5 Web-based Data Management
2.5 Sensors and Agriculture
2.5.1 Soil Moisture
2.5.2 Soil Salinity and PH
2.5.3 Climatic Variables
2.6 WSNs in Agriculture
2.6.1 Vineyard Temperature Monitoring
2.6.2 Potato Disease Prevention
2.6.3 Tomato Disease Prevention
2.6.4 Cattle Monitoring
2.6.5 Paddy Field Monitoring
2.6.6 Discussion
WSNs and Developing Countries
3.1 Existing WSN Projects
3.1.1 Groundwater Arsenic Contamination Assessment in Bangladesh
3.1.2 SenSlide, A Sensor Network Based Landslide Prediction System
3.1.3 Wireless Sensor Network for Water Quality Management
3.1.4 Flood Detection System for Honduras
3.1.5 Road Surface Condition Monitoring
3.1.6 Other Work
3.2 A New Tool for Developing Regions?
3.2.1 Assets
3.2.2 Challenges
Wireless Sensor Networks for Marginal Agriculture in India
4.1 Project, Consortium and Funding
4.2 COMMON-Sense Net: a Decision-Support Tool for Agriculture
4.3 Setting the Context
4.3.1 The Pavagada Region
4.3.2 The Chennakeshavapura Village
4.3.3 Type of Agriculture
4.3.4 Marginal Farmers
4.4. A SURVEY AND ANALYSIS ON FARMERS’ NEEDS 51
4.4 A Survey and Analysis on Farmers’ Needs
4.4.1 Survey Methodology
4.4.2 Summary of Results
4.4.3 Interpretation and Motivation
4.5 Use Cases and Related Environmental Data
4.5.1 Crop Modeling
4.5.2 Water Conservation Measures
4.5.3 Pest and Disease Prediction/Prevention
4.5.4 Water Management for Deficit Irrigation
4.6 Design Guidelines
4.6.1 Technical Point-of-View
4.7. METHODOLOGY: SCIENCE AND FARMERS 59
4.6.2 Scientific Point-of-View
4.6.3 Economical and Sociocultural Point-of-View
4.7 Methodology: Science and Farmers
System Design and Implementation
5.1 Design Options
5.1.1 Data Generation Strategy
5.1.2 Data Transport Strategy
5.2. DESIGN CHOICE: OVERVIEW 63
5.2 Design Choice: Overview
5.3 Embedded Probes
5.4 Wireless Sensor Network: Data Collection Subsystem
5.4.1 Radio Range
5.4.2 Power Consumption
5.5. HYBRID NETWORK: DATA TRANSIT SUBSYSTEM 67
5.5 Hybrid Network: Data Transit Subsystem
5.5.1 WiFi Bridge
5.5.2 GPRS Bridge
5.5.3 Performance Evaluation
5.6. DATA MANAGEMENT AND PROCESSING 71
5.6 Data Management and Processing
5.6.1 Tables
5.7 A Web-based Tool
5.7.1 Data Display
5.7.3 Commands
A Wireless Sensor Network Toolkit for Rural India
6.1 Changins
6.2 Chennakeshavapura
6.3 Issues of a Rural Deployment
6.3.1 Hardware Issues
6.3.2 Probe Assessment
6.3.3 Power Management
6.3.4 Environment
6.3.5 Power and Telecommunications Infrastructure
6.3.6 Connectivity Issues
6.4 Human Issues
6.5 System Overview
6.6 Lessons Learned
Making the Invisible Audible
7.1 Introduction
7.2 State of the Art
7.2.1 WSN deployment and Maintenance Support
7.2.2 Sonification
7.2.3 WSNs and their End-Users
7.3 Sonification for Sensor Networks
7.3.1 Applications
7.3.2 Advantages
7.3.3 Challenges
7.3.4 Signal and Noise Metaphor
7.4 System Design
7.4.1 System Model
7.4.2 Tool and Scenarios
7.4.3 Protocols
7.4.4 Sonification Mapping Strategy
7.5 Initial Exploration: User Survey
7.5.1 Description
7.5.2 Results
7.6 Prototype Implementation
7.6.1 Prototype Description
7.7 Experimental Validation
7.7.1 Comparable Graphical Interface
7.7.2 Experimental Design
7.8 Discussion
Usability and Usefulness of the System
8.1 Charting the Paradigm Shift
8.1.1 Choosing the Target Population
8.1.2 Goal and Methodology
8.2 Experiment Results
8.2.1 Questionnaires
8.2.2 User Activity Logging
8.2.3 Debriefing Meetings
8.3 Discussion
8.3.1 Usefulness
8.3.2 Usability
8.3.3 Use
8.3.4 Sectoral Analysis
Building a Knowldedge Society with the Use of WSNs?
9.1 Experimental Technology for Social Change?
9.2 Design/Implementation Gaps
9.3 Knowledge Creation, Context and Knowledge Assets
9.4 Apprenticeship & Participatory Methods to Develop ICT Capacities
9.5 From Theory to Practice
Conclusion
Future Work
References
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Published by: Venkata Ramireddy on Feb 25, 2012
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