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Notes on the Scientifi Revolution

Notes on the Scientifi Revolution

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Published by msG77
Scientific Revolution Notes
Scientific Revolution Notes

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Published by: msG77 on Nov 22, 2008
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06/14/2009

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Scientific Revolution
Origins:
Antiquity: Arist. -- physics, Ptolemy - astron, Galen - medicinemost dramatic advances in these fieldsmust account 4 new observationsi.e. Arist. & arrow, Ptol & movement some planets, Galen & dissections“Magic”alchemy: matter trans ----> other matter Paracelsus: metals medicinal, i.e. mercury & syphilisastrology: predictions based on planets**World could be understoodSupp by NeoPlatonism, other mystical ideas: i.e. Jewish cabala+ new attention 2 Pythagorasuniv = magical arrang #s New interest in new & simple solutions---> capabilities to discard old, seek new---> intellectual revolutionOther Influences1) technological invention: i.e. telescope, vacuum pump, therm., barom., microscencouraged scientific approach pioneered by Bacon* in order nature reveal secrets, it had to be made to do things it didnot want to do normally --- “twist the lion’s tail”2) interest in experiments anatomists1542: Anatomy & AstronomyVesalius: Structure of the Human Body
Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish
Ptolemy: crystalline spheres revolved around earth: geocentric- all circular, irreg expl by epicycles (sm revolv spheres att to larg)Copernicus said: “too complex”So...set out to provide simpler picture:sun @ center orderly, harmonious univ. - heliocentric(in reality not simpler)On the Revolution of the Heavenly SpheresProblem: demonstrationideas ---> Gregorian calendar: 1582
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Danish (gold & silver nose!)
 built observatorydata: plotted moon & planets ---> uneasy compromise Ptol/Copern planets around sun...planets and sun and earth and moon????? prob because did not want 2 supp. Copern theory
Johnnes Kepler (1571-1630) German
mathematician, astrologer, advocate magic theories believed Copern....studied Brahe3 Laws of Planetary Motion1) orbits = ellipses2) planets not move @ uniform speed in orbits
 Sci Rev Notes1
 
3) regularity movement based on dist to sun (--> idea of univ gravitation)*ideas used by Newton 50 yrs later....
Galileo (1564-1642) Italian (math prof age 25)
 planetary motion & motion on earthobservation + math + physicsmethods of investigation ---> simil modern scientistfrom observations --> abstraction(imagin sit not creatable in exper)& arrive @ principle inertiainertia: obj continues in motion 4ever unless stopped by external forceBut did do experiments!acceleration experiment: uniform force prod unif. accelerationApplied experimental methos to Astronomyw/telescope: Jupiter had moons, earth’s moon had mountainsther4 not embedded in crystalline spheres! No more immutable, unblemished heavens!Earth physics could be used to explain heavenly physics: earth simply prt of unif univ**Trad. & theological worldview now crumbling & a new approach of critical, scientificmethod had arrived!i.e. why say univ revolved around earth when all celestial motion expl byrotation/revolution of single planet?Conflict w/Churchallowed to write about diff poss wld sys as long as didn’t presume to judge whichactually existed.Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems 1632openly lampooned trad. views Arist/Ptolwritten 4 wide audience (dialogue & in Italian)1635 tried by Inquisition 4 heresyforced to recant “errors and heresies”legend says Galileo muttered....”but they do move”trial became symbol of inevitable conflict relig belief & scientific knowledge**Legacy:By 1630’s: no self respecting astronomer could deny validity of CopernMan had progressed from bewilderment ---> level of certainty re: physical world
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) English
 imp contrib --> math, physics, astron, optics physics + astron = single sys expl all motionunited experimental w/theoretical-mathematicaldev calculus (parallel dev by Leibnitz)estab basic laws of mod physicsResearch motivated by participation in Royal Society of Londonwhereas Copern in isolationPrincipia (1687) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophyseeking to refute Descartes app to science(Descartes: pwr of mind/pure reason in investig. nature) Newton felt mere hypoth, constructions of logic & words, NOT tools of scientist
 Sci Rev Notes2
 
 Hypotheses non fingo
” ( I do not posit hypoth)everything proved by experiment/mathematicsMotion: 3 Laws1) absence of force - motion in a straight line2) rate of change of motion due to forces acting upon: i.e. friction3) action & reaction are equal & oppositedf concepts: mass, inertia & force in relation 2 velocity&accel as we know todayLaws extended to entire universe: bal btwn gravity of earth’s pull & forward motion of moon= elliptical orbit, neither gravity or inertia prevailIntegrated astron of Copern as corrected by Kepler...w/physics of Galileo & predecessors“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”
Legacy Newton:
 Newton’s descrip of uniformity/systematic impersonal forces---> view of univ as vast machineall motion result of precise, unvarying, demonstrable forcesther4....not far to belief in God as great watchmaker:only intervenes when something wrong, needs repair Alexander Pope: “Nature and Nature’s law lay hid in night;God said, ‘Let Newton be!’ and all was light.”General impression for many yrs to come....Newton had done it all
New Epistemology
A new theory of how to obtain & verify knowledgestressed experience, reason & doubtreject’d unsubstantiated authoritynew discoveries = independent valuenot rely on trad considerations (i.e common sense) or theology to interferehypoth --> observations --> generalizations(valid unless contrad. by experim) -->experimentationmeasurement = key to strict observations (data) NOT subjectivether4 lang of science came to be mathematicsYet...rarely reached conclusions in exact format describedexperiments & hypoth can occur in mind
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) French
voice of protest mid 17th Cvs. in partic. materialism of Descartes probability theorem, conic sect. ---> integral calculus barometric pressure, calculating machine....contact w/ Jansenism (not popular):salvation entirely God’sunswerving faith = only path1654 Nov - myst. exper. = devote life to salvationPensées: published post mortem (“Reflections”)deeply religious
 Sci Rev Notes3

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