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Case, T. - 'Aristotle'.

Case, T. - 'Aristotle'.

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ARISTOPHANES
ARISTOTLE
501
imagination.
As
a
poet,
he
is
immortal.
And,
among
Athenian
poet*,
hehas
it
for
his
distinctivecharacteristic
that
he
is
inspired
lest
by
that
Greek
genius
which
never
allows
fancy
to
escape
from
thecontrol
ofdefining,
though
spiritualizing,
reason,
than
by
such
ethereal
rapture
of
theunfettered
fancy
as
lifts
Shake-
speare
orShelley
above
it,
"
Pouring
hit
full
heart
In
profuse
strainsof
unpremeditated
art.'
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Editioprinceo*
(Aldine.
Venice,
1498),
byMarcusMuiurua
(not
including
the
Lysistrata
and
Tkesmopkoria-
tusat);
S.
Bergler
(ed.
P.
Burmann,
1760);Invcrnizi-Beck-
Dindorf
(1794-1834);
I.
Bckker
(1829);
H.
A.
Holden
(expurgated
text.
1868),
with
Onomasticon
(new
ed.,
1902);
F.
H.
M.
Blaydes
(1880-1893),
and
critical
edition
(1886);
J.
van
Leeuwen
(1803
foil.);
F.
W.
Hall
and
E.
M.
Geldart
(text,
1900-1901),
with
the
fragment
(from
the
Oxyrhynchus
papyri)
of
a
dialogue
between
two
women
concerning
a
leathern
phallus,
perhaps
from
Aristophanes.
There
U
acomplete
edition
of
the
valuable
scholia
by
F.
Dlibner
(1842,
Didot
series),
with
the
anonymous
biographies
of
thepoet;
of
the
Ravenna
MS.
by
A.
Martin
(1883),
and
W.
G.
Rutherford
(1896-1905).
Among
English
translations
mention
may
be
made
of
those
of
W.
J.
Hickie
(prose,
in
Bonn's
Classical
Library)
;
(verse)
J.
Hookham
Frere,
five
plays;
T.
Mitchell,
four
plays;
and,
above
all,
B.B.
Rogers,
a
brilliant
work
of
exceptional
merit
There
is
aconcordance
to
the
plays
and
fragments
by
H.
Dunbar
(1883).
On
Aristophanes
generally
see
H.
Muller-Strubing,
Aristophanes
pkant
(3rd
ed.,
1892);
G.
Dantu,
Opinions
el
critiques
d'Aristophane
stir
le
moucement
poliliyue
et
inleuectuel
d
Atkenes
(Paris,
1907).
For
the
numerous
editions
and
translations
of
separateplays
in
English
and
other
languages
see
theintroductions
to
Blaydes's
edition,
and,
for
the
literature,
theintroduction
to
W.
J.
M.
Starkie's
edition
of
the
Wasps
(1897)
;
W.
Engelmann,
Scriptores
Graeci(1880)
;
and
"
Bericht
Uber
die
Literatur
der
griechischen
Komodie
aus
den
Jahren
1892-1901
"
in
C.Bursian's
Jahrtsberichl
uber
die
Fortsckritte
derclassischen
Altertumswissensckafl,
cxvi.
(1904).
(R.
C.
J.)
ARISTOPHANES,
of
Byzantium,
Greek
critic
and
grammarian,
was
born
about
257
B.C.
He
removed
early
to
Alexandria,
where
he
studied
under
Zenodotus
and
Callimachus.
At
the
age
of
sixty
he
was
appointed
chief
librarian
of
the
museum.
He
died
about
185-180
B.C.
Aristophanes
chiefly
devoted
himselfto
the
poets,especially
Homer,
who
had
already
been
edited
by
his
master
Zenodotus.
He
also
edited
Hesiod,
the
chief
lyric,
tragic
and
comic
poets,
arranged
Plato's
dialogues
in
trilogies,
and
abridged
Aristotle's
Nature
of
Animals.
His
arguments
to
the
plays
of
Aristophanes
and
thetragedians
are
in
great
part
preserved.
His
works
on
Athenian
courtesans,
masks
and
proverbs
were
the
results
of
his
study
of
Attic
comedy.
He
further
commented
on
the
lUvaxts
of
Callimachus,
a
sortof
history
of
Greek
literature.
As
a
lexicographer,
Aristophanes
compiled
collections
of
foreign
and
unusual
words
and
expressions,
and
special
lists
(words
denoting
relationship,
modes
of
address).
As
a
grammarian,
he
founded
a
scientific
school,
and
inhis
Analogy
systematically
explained
the
various
forms.
He
introduced
critical
signs
except
the
obelus;
punctuation
prosodiacal,
and
accentual
marks
were
probably
already
in
use.
The
foundation
of
the
so-called
Alexandrian
"
canon
"
was
also
due
to
his
impulse](Sandys,
Hist.
Class.
Sckol.,
ed.
1906,
i.
129
f.).
Nauck,
AristopkanisByzantii
Grammatici
Fragments
(1848).
ARISTOTLE
(384-322
B.C.),
the
great
Greek
philosopher,
was
born
at
Stagira,
on
the
Strymonic
Gulf,
and
hence
called
"
the
Stagirite."
Dionysius
of
Halicamassus,
inhis
Epistle
on
Demo-
sthenes
and
Aristotle
(chap.
5),
gives
the
following
sketch
ofhis
life:
Aristotle
('ApurTortXijs)
was
the
son
of
Nicomachus,
who
traced
back
his
descent
and
his
artto
Machaon.son
of
Aesculapius
;
his
mother
being
Phaestis,
a
descendant
of
one
of
those
who
carried
the
colony
from
Chalcis
to
Stagira.
He
was
born
in
the
oqth
Olympiad
in
the
archonship
at
Athens
of
Diotrcphes
(384-383),
three
years
before
Demosthenes.
In
the
archonship
of
Polyzelus
(367-366),
after
the
death
of
his
father,
inhis
eighteenth
year,
he
came
to
Athens,
and
having
joinedPlato
spent
twenty
years
with
him.
On
the
death
of
Plato
(May
347)
in
the
archonship
of
Theophilus
(348-347)
hedeparted
to
Hermias,
tyrant
of
Atarneus,
and,
after
three
years'stay,
during
the
archonship
of
Eubulus
(345-344)he
moved
to
Mitylene,
whence
he
went
toPhilip
of
Macedon
in
the
archonship
of
Pythodotu*
(343-342),
and
spent
eight
yearswith
him
astutor
of
Alexander.Afterthe
death
of
Philip
(336),
in
the
archonship
of
Euaenetus
(335-334),
he
returned
to
Athens
and
kept
a
school
in
the
Lyceum
for
twelve
yean.
In
the
thirteenth,
after
the
death
of
Alexander(June
323)
in
the
archonship
of
Cephisodorus
(323-322),
having
departed
to
Chalcis,
he
died
of
disease
(322),after
a
life
of
threc-and-wxty
I.
AJUSTOTLE'S
Lire
Thisaccount
is
practically
repeated
by
Diogenes
Laertius
in
his
Life
of
Aristotle,
on
theauthority
of
the
Chronicles
of
Apollodorus,
who
lived
in
the
2nd
century
B.C.
Starting
then
from
this
tradition,
near
enough
to
the
time,
we
can
confidentlydivide
Aristotle's
career
into
four
periods:
his
youth
under
his
parents
till
his
eighteenth
year;
his
philosophical
education
under
Plato
at
Athens
till
his
thirty-eighthyear;
his
travels
in
the
Greek
world
till
his
fiftieth
year;
and
his
philosophical
teaching
in
the
Lyceum
till
his
departure
to
Chalcis
and
his
death
inhissixty-
third
year.
But
whenwe
descend
from
generalsto
particulars,
we
become
less
certain,
andmust
here
content
ourselves
with
few
details.
Aristotle
from
the
first
profited
by
havinga
father
who,
being
physician
to
Amyntas
II.,
king
of
Macedon,and
one
of
theAsclepiads
who,
according
to
Galen,
practised
their
sons
in
dis-
section,
both
prepared
the
way
forhis
son'sinfluence
at
the
Macedonian
court,
and
gave
him
a
biasto
medicine
and
biology,
which
certainly
led
to
his
belief
in
nature
and
natural
science,
and
perhapsinduced
him
to
practise
medicine,
as
he
did,
accord-
ing
to
his
enemies,
Timaeusand
Epicurus,
when
he
first
went
to
Athens.
At
Athens
in
his
second
period
for
some
twenty
years
he
acquired
the
further
advantage
of
balancing
natural
science
by
metaphysics
and
morals
in
the
course
of
reading
Plato's
writings
and
of
hearing
Plato's
unwritten
dogmas
(cf.
t*
rotf
Xtyo/itKxj
a-ypotfxxs
obynaaiv,
Ar.
Physics,
iv.
2,
209
b
15,
Berlin
ed.).
He
was
an
earnest,appreciative,
independent
student.
The
master
is
said
to
have
called
his
pupil
the
intellect
of
theschool
and
his
house
a
reader's.
He
is
also
said
to
have
complained
that
his
pupil
spumed
him
as
colts
do
their
mothers.
Aristotle,
however,
always
revered
Plato's
memory
(Nic.
Ethics,
L
6),
and
even
in
criticizing
his
master
counted
himself
enough
of
a
Platonist
to
cite
Plato's
doctrines
as
what
"
we
say
"
(cf.
fatter,
Metaphysics,
L
9,
ooo
b
16).
At
the
same
time,
he
must
have
learnt
much
from
other
contemporaries
at
Athens,
especially
from
astronomerssuch
as
Eudoxusand
Callippus,
and
from
orators
such
as
Isocratcs
and
Demosthenes.
He
also
attacked
Isocrates,
according
toCicero,
and
perhaps
even
set
up
a
rival
school
ofrhetoric.
At
any
rate
he
had
pupils
of
his
own,
such
as
Eudemus
of
Cyprus,Theodectes
and
Hennias,
books
of
his
own,
especially
dialogues,
and
even
to
some
extent
his
own
philosophy,
while
he
was
still
a
pupil
of
Plato.
Well
grounded
inhis
boyhood,
and
thoroughly
educated
inhis
manhood,
Aristotle,
after
Plato's
death,
had
the
further
advan-
tage
of
travel
inhis
thirdperiod,
when
he
was
inhis
prime.
The
appointment
of
Plato's
nephew,
Speusippus,
to
succeed
his
uncle
in
the
Academy
induced
Aristotle
and
Xenocrates
to
leave
Athens
together
and
repairto
the
court
of
Hermias.
Aristotle
admired
Hennias,
and
married
hisfriend's
sister
or
niece,
Pythias,
by
whom
he
had
his
daughter
Pythias.
Afterthe
tragic
death
of
Hermias,he
retired
for
a
time
to
Mitylene,
and
in
343-342
was
summoned
to
Macedon
by
Philipto
teachAlexander,
who
was
then
a
boy
ofthirteen.
According
to
Cicero
(
De
Oratore,
iii.
4
1
)
,
Philip
wished
his
son,
then
a
boy
ofthirteen,
toreceive
from
Aristotle
"
agendipraecepta
et
eloquendi."
Aristotle
is
said
to
have
written
onmonarchy
and
on
colonies
for
Alexander;
and
the
pupil
is
saidto
have
slept
with
his
master's
edition
of
Homer
under
his
pillow,
and
to
have
respected
him,
until
from
hatred
of
Aristotle's
tactless
relative,
Callisthenes,
who
was
done
to
death
in
328,
he
turned
at
last
against
Aristotlehimself.Aristotle
had
power
toteach,
and
Alexander
to
learn.
Still
we
must
notexaggerate
the
result.
Dionysius
must
have
spoken
too
strongly,
ARI
ST
OPI
-IANES-A
RI
STOTLE
501
Im:l.gination.
As
a.
poet, he
is
immortal.And,o.mongAthenian
~ t
s
,
he
has it for hhdistinctive characteristic
that
he is inspired
I
l'$.~
by
that
Greek
gelliu~
which never allows
C:!.ncy
to escapefrom the control of defining. thoughspiritualizing, reason,
than
hy
~
lIch
ethereal rapture of the unfettered fancy
as
lif~
Shakespeare
or
Shcllcy above il
,-
" Pouring
hi~
(ull
heart
J
n
profU5C
strains
of
unprt'meditatcd
art:
BIDLIOGRAPJI\·.
-Edilio
\)rin
c
(.p~
(Aldine, Venice.
149/1),
byMarcus
~l
usurus(not inclut ing I
he
L
ys
islrala
ami
TMsmo/,horia-.usae);
S.
Bergler(cd.
1'.
Burmann.17(0); Invernizl·BcckDindorf(
1794
-
11134);
I.
Bekker(1
11
2<»;
1/.
A.
I/olden(expurgatedtext,
111(8),
with
Onomas/ic
on
(
new
('(I.,
1(02);
F.H.
M.
Blardes(1/llIo-I1I9}), andcritical cdilion(18
1i
6)
; J. van Leeuwcn (1893
(011.
);
F.
\\'.
lJall and
E.
~1.
Gclt
.
l;art
(Iext,
I~I<)OI),
with thefragment(
from
the Oxyrhynchus
p.~pyri
)
of
a dialogue betweentwo"'omenconcerning a leathern phallu
s,
perhaps from Aristophanes.There
i~
a complete edilion
of
the valuable
sc
holia byF. Diibner(1841, Didot
scril'S)
, with the anonymousbiographies
of
thepoet;of the Ravenna
~IS.
by
A.
~Iartin
(
111113
), and
W.
G.Rutherford
(181)6-1905).
AmongEnglish Iranslalionsmenlion may
be
madeof those of
W.
J.lIickie (prosc,
in
Bohn's
Classical Library);
(verse)
J.
HookhamFrere,
five
plays:T.
~Iitc
h
e
ll,
fo
ur
plays; and,aboveall,
B.B.
Rog~-rs,
a brilliantwork
of
exceptional merit.There
is
aconcordance to the plays and fragments by
H.
Dunbar(1883).
On
Aristophanes generally
sec
11.
Miiller-Striibins-,
Aristophanesund die historiscMKri/il:
(1873
): the article
by'
G.Kaibel
in
PaulyWissowa's
Realetlcydopadle,
ii.
1
(18<)6
);
A.
Cou'!t.
Aristophane
et
l'ancienne comrdie aUique
(1889);
E.
Deschanel,
Etudessur
Amto-
phane
(3rd cd.,1892):G. Dantu,
Opinions
el
cri/iques d'Aristophanesur
le
mouument politUjue
et
inklleelllel
d
Athtnes
(Paris,1(07).Forthe numerous editIOns and translations
of
separate plays
in
Englishand otherlanguages
sec
the inlroductionsto B1aydes'sedition, and,for theliterature,theintroduction to
W.
J.
1\1.
Starkie'sedition of the
lVasps
(189i);
W.
Engelmann,
Scriptores Graee;
(1880);
and"
Bericht iiherdieLiteraturder gricchischenKom&lieaus den Jahren 1891-t901
..
in
C.
Bursian's
Jahrnberic
hl
uber dieFortschrittt
der
dassischen Alkrtumswissenschafl,
cxvi.
(1<)04).
(R.
C.
J.)
ARISTOPHANES.of
Byzantium,
Greek critic
and
grammarian,was born
about
257
D.C.
Heremoved early to Alexandria,wherehestudiedunderZenodotus
and
Callimachus.At the age ofsixtyhe was
appointed
chief librarian of the museum.He died
about
185-180
D.e.
Aristophaneschiefly devotedhimself tothe poets,especiallyHomer, whohad already been
editedby
his
master
Zenodotus.Healso ediled Hesiod,
the
chieflyric,tragic
and
comicpoets, arranged
Plato's
dialoguesin trilogies,
and
abridged Aristotle's
Nature
of
A rrima/s.
His
arguments
to theplays ofAristopha.nes
and
thetragedians are in
great
part
preserved. His works on Atheniancourtcsans,masks
and
proverbs were the results of his
study
ofAttic comedy.
He
further
commented onthe
niVIlKES
of Callimachus,a
sort
of historyofGreek literature.
As
a lexicographer, Aristophanescompiled collectionsofforeign
and
unusualwords
and
expressions,
and
special lists(wordsdenoting relationship, modesofaddress). As a grammarian, he founded ascientific school,
and
in his
Analogy
systematically explained
the
variousforms.
He
introduced critical
signs-except
the
obelus;
punctuation
prosodiacal,
and
accentual
marks
were probably already in
use_
The
foundation of
the
so-c..1.lled
Alexandrian
"canon"
was also due to his impulse:(Sandys,
II
sl. Class.Scno/.,
cd.
11)06,
i. 129
f.}.
~auck,
Aristcphanis
Bywntii
Grammatici Fragmenta(1848).
ARISTOTLE(384-322
D.C.),
the
great
Greek philosopher, wasborn
at
Stagira,onthe StrymonicGulf,
and
hence
called"
theStagirite."Dionysius of HalicaCll3ssus,inhis
Epistle
onDemo-stilt/itS alldAriSlotle
(chap. 5),givesthe follo
....
ing
sketchofhis
life:-Aristotle ('
APWTOTE>'J)S)
was the son of:\icomachus, whotraced back his descent
and
his
art
to
~Iachaon,son
ofAesculapius;his mother beingPhaestis,a descendan t of one ofthose whocarried the colony from Cha1cistoStagira.
lie
wasbornin the
99th
Olympiad in the archonship
at
Athens ofDiotrephes(384-383),threeyears beforeDemosthenes.
In
the archonship ofPolyzclus
(36j-366),
after the
death
of his father, in his eighteenthyear, hecame toAthens,
and
having joined Plato spent
twenty
years withhim.On the
death
ofPlato
(~Iay
347) inthearchonship ofThcophilus(348-347) he departed
10
Hermias,
tyrant
ofAtarneus,
and,after
three years'
stay
,duringthe archonshipofEubulus (345-344)hemovedto
~litylene
,
whence he went toI'hilipof
~lacedon
in
the
archoMhip of
l'ythod
o
tU
5
(3
43-342),
and
lpent
eight years with him as
tut
or of
Al
exande
r.
After
the
death
ofI'hilip(336), in the archonship of t
:uae
netus (335-334),
he
returned
to
Athens
and
kept a
sc
hool in
th
eLy
ce
um for twelveyears.
In
the thirteenth, after
the
death
of
Ale
xa
nder
Uune
323)in the archonship of Cephisodorus
(3
23-322),having
departed
toChalcis, he died of disrosc(322),
aft
er a life of three-and-lixty
years.
1.
AllISTOTLE'S
LIFE
Thisaccount is practically repeated by
Di
ogenes
I.aerti~
in his
Life
of
Aristot/e,
on
the
authority
of
the
Chronicles
of Apollodorus,wholived in the 2nd
century
D.C.
Starting
then from thistradition, nearenoughto thetime,
we
c
an
confidently divideAristotle'scareerinto fourperiods: his
youth
under
his
paren~
till his eighteenthyear;his philosophical education
under
Plato
at
Athenstill his thirty-eighth year; his travels in the Greekworldtill his fiftieth year;
and
his philosophical teaching in theLyceumtill his
departure
to Chalcis
and
his
death
in his sixty
third
year.
But
when
we
descend from generals to particulars,
we
becomelesscertain,
and
must here content ourselves withfewdetails.Aristotlefrom
the
first profited
by
having a father who, beingphysician to
Amyntas
n.,
king of
~Iacedon,
and
one of
the
Asc1epiads who,according to Galen, practised their sons in
dis-
section,
both
prepared
the
way for his son's influence
at
the
;\Iacedoniancourt,
and
gave hima bias to medicine
and
biology,whichcertainlyledtohisbelief in
nature and natural
science,
and
perhaps inducedhim to practise medicine, as he did, acc.ording to his enemies, Timaeus
and
Epicurus, whenhe first wenttoAthens.
At
Athens in hissecond periodforsome
twenty
yearsheacquired the further advanta!;.eof balancing
natural
science bymetaphysics
and
moralsinthecourse ofreading
Plato's
writings
and
ofhearing
Plato's
unwrittendogmas
(cf.
EV
TO,S
>'t'YOJlEVlXS
o.'Yp/J.qxxs
OCrtJlMlV,
Ar.
Physics,
iv.
2,
209
b15, Berlin ed.).
He
was
an
earnest, appreciative, independentstudenL
The
master
is said
to
have called hispupil the intellect of the school
and
his house a reader's.
He
isalso said
to
have complained
that
his pupil spurned him as coltsdotheir mothers.Aristotle, however, always revered
Plato's
memory
(Nic.
Ethics,
L
6),
and
even
in
criticizing his
master
counted himselfenough ofa
Platonist
to cite
Plato's
doctrines as
what"
wc
say"
(cf.
cf>a.sUII,
},[
elaphysics,
i.
9, 990b 16}. At the same time,hemust have
learnt
much from
other
contemporaries
at
Athens,especially fromastronomers such
as
Eudoxus
and
Callippus,
and
from
orators
such asIsocrates
and
Demosthenes.Healso
attacked
Isocrates,according to Cicero,
and
perhaps even set
up
a rivalschool ofrhetoric.At
any
rate
he
had
pupils of hisown,suchas
Eudemus
of Cyprus, Theodectes
and
Hermias, booksof
his
own, especiallydialogues,
and
even to some
extent
hisownphilosophy,whilehe wasstilla pupil of
Plato.
\\
'ellgrounded in his boyhood,
and
thoroughlyeducated inhismanhood, Aristotle,
after
Plato's
death,
had
thefurther
advan
tage of travel in his third period, when hewas in his prime.
Theappointment
of
Plato's
nephew,Speusippus, to succeed his unclein
the
Ac..1.demy
induced Aristotle
and
Xenocratcs to leaveAthens together
and
repairto the
court
ofHcrmias. Aristotleadmired Hermias,
and
marriedhis friend's sister
or
niece,
Pythias,
by
whom he
had
his
daughter
Pythias.After the tragic
death
ofHermias, he retiredfor a time to
~litylene,
and
in
343-3.P
wassummoned to Macedon
by
Philip to teach Alexander, whowas
then
aboy of thirteen.Accordingto Cicero
(De
Oratore,
ili.
41
),
Philip wishedhis son, then a boy of thirteen, to receive from
Aristotle"
agendi praecepta
et
eloquendi." Aristotle is said to
have
written
on
monarchy
and
on colonies for Alexander;
and
the
pupil
is
said to have slept with his master's edition of Homer
under
his pilloW,
and
to
ha\'e respected him, until from
h.1.tred
ofAristotle'stactless relati\'e, Callisthenes, who was done to
death
in 328, he turned
at
last againstAristotlehimself. Aristotle
had
power to teach.
and
.
\Iexander
to learn_ Still
we
must notexaggeraletheresult. Dionysius must have spoken too strongly,
 
502
ARISTOTLE
when
he
says
that
Aristotle
was
tutor
of
Alexander
for
eightyears;
forin
340,
when
Philip
went
to
war
with
Byzantium,
Alexander
became
regent
at
home,
at
the
age
of
sixteen.
From
this
date
Aristotle
probably
spent
much
time
at
his
paternal
house
inhis
native
city
at
Stagiraas
a
patriotic
citizen.
Philip
had
sacked
it
in
348:
Aristotle
induced
him
or
his
son
to
restore
it,
made
for
it
a
new
constitution,
and
in
return
was
celebrated
in
a
festival
after
his
death.
All
these
vicissitudes
made
him
a
man
of
the
world,
drew
him
out
of
the
philosophical
circle
at
Athens,
and
gave
him
leisure
to
develop
his
philosophy.
Besides
Alexanderhe
had
other
pupils:Calh'sthenes,
Cassander,
Marsyas,
Phanias,
and
Theophrastus
of
Eresus,
who
is
saidto
have
had
land
at
Stagira.
He
also
continued
the
writings
begun
in
his
second
period;
and
the
Macedonian
kings
have
theglory
of
having
assisted
the
Stagirite
philosopher
with
the
means
of
conducting
his
researches
in
the
History
of
Animals.
At
last,
inhis
fourth
period,
after
the
accession
of
Alexander,
Aristotle
at
fifty
returned
to
Athens
andbecame
the
head
of
his
own
school
in
the
Lyceum,
a
gymnasium
near
the
temple
of
ApolloLyceius
in
thesuburbs.
The
master
and
his
scholars
were
called
Peripatetics
(oi
rov
Ttptirdrou),
certainly
from
meet-
ing,like
other
philosophical
schools,
in
a
walk
(reptxaros),
and
perhaps
also,
on
theauthority
of
Hermippus
of
Smyrna,from
walking
and
talking
there,
like
Protagoras
and
his
followers
asdescribed
in
Plato's
Protagoras(314
E,
315
c).
Indeed,according
to
Ammonius,
Platotoo
had
talkedas
he
walked
in
the
Academy;
and
all
his
followers
were
calledPeripatetics,
until,
whilethe
pupilsof
Xenocrates
took
the
name
"
Academics,"
those
of
Aristotle
retained
the
general
name.
Aristotle
also
formed
his
Peripatetic
school
into
a
kind
of
college
with
common
meals
under
a
president
(&pxtav)
changing
every
ten
days;while
the
philosopher
himself
delivered
lectures,
in
which
his
practice,
as
his
pupil
Aristoxenus
tells
us
(Harmonics,
ii.
init.),
was,
avoiding
the
generalities
ofPlato,
to
prepare
his
audience
by
explainingthesubject
of
investigation
and
its
nature.
But
Aristotle
was
an
author
as
well
as
a
lecturer;
for
the
hypothesis
that
the
Aris-totelian
writings
are
notes
of
his
lectures
taken
down
by
his
pupils
is
contradicted
by
the
traditionof
their
learning
while
walking,
and
disproved
by
the
impossibility
of
taking
down
such
compli-
cated
discourses
from
dictation.
Moreover,
itis
clear
that
Aristotle
addressed
himself
to
readersas
well
as
hearers,
as
in
concluding
his
whole
theory
of
syllogisms
he
says,
"
There
would
remain
for
all
of
you
or
for
our
hearers(TT&VTUV
vfilav
%
rSiv
riKpoapevav)
a
duty
of
according
to
the
defects
of
the
investiga-tion
consideration,to
its
discoveries
much
gratitude
"
(Sophisti-
cal
Elenchi,
34,
1
84
b
6)
.
In
short,
Aristotle
was
at
oncea
student,
a
reader,
a
lecturer,
a
writer
and
a
book
collector.
He
was,says
Strabo
(608),
the
first
we
knew
who
collected
books
and
taught
the
kings
in
Egypt
the
arrangement
of
a
library.
In
his
library
no
doubt
werebooks
of
others,
but
also
his
own.
There
we
must
figure
toourselves
the
philosopher,
constantly
referring
to
his
autograph
rolls;
entering
references
and
cross-references;cor-
recting,
rewriting,collecting
and
arranging
them
according
to
their
subjects;
showing
as
well
as
reading
them
to
his
pupils;
with
little
thought
of
publication,
but
with
his
whole
soul
con-centrated
on
being
and
truth.
On
his
first
visit
to
Athens,during
which
occurred
the
fatal
battleof
Mantineia
(362
B.C.),
Aristotle
had
seen
theconfusion
of
Greece
becoming
the
opportunity
of
Macedon
under
Philip;
and
on
his
second
visit
he
was
supported
at
Athens
by
the
complete
domination
of
Macedon
under
Alexander.
Having
witnessedthe
unjust
exactions
of
a
democracy
at
Athens,
the
dwindling
population
of
an
oligarchy
atSparta,
and
the
oppressive
selfish-
ness
of
new
tyrannies
throughout
the
Greek
world,
he
condemned
theactual
constitutions
of
the
Greek
states
as
deviations
(jrapeK-
/3dereis)
directed
merely
to
the
good
of
the
government;
and
hecontemplated
a
right
constitution
(opdfi
TroAireta),
whichmight
be
either
a
commonwealth,
an
aristocracyor
a
monarchy,
directed
to
the
general
good;
buthe
preferred
the
monarchy
of
one
man,
pre-eminent
in
virtue
above
the
rest,
as
the
best
of
all
governments
(Nicomachean
Ethics,
viii.
10;
Politics,
F
14-18).
Moreover,
by
adding
(Politics,
H
7,
1327
b
29-33)
tnatthe
Greek
race
could
govern
the
world
by
obtaining
one
constitution
TvyxiJW
7roAiTas),
he
indicated
some
leaning
to
a
universal
monarchy
under
sucha
king
as
Alexander.
On
thewhole,
however,
he
adhered
to
the
Greek
city-state
(iriXis),
partly
perhapsout
of
patriotism
to
his
own
Stagira.
Averse
at
all
events
to
the
Athenian
democracy,
leaning
towards
Macedonian
monarchy,
and
resting
on
Macedonian
power,
hemaintained
himself
in
his
schoolat
Athens,
so
long
as
he
was
supported
by
the
friendship
of
Antipater,
the
Macedonian
regent
in
Alexander's
absence.
But
on
Alexander's
sudden
death
in
323,
when
Athens
in
the
Lamian
war
tried
to
reassert
her
freedom
againstAntipater,
Aristotle
found
himself
in
danger.
He
was
accused
of
impiety
on
the
absurd
charge
of
deifying
the
tyrant
Hermias;
and,
remembering
the
fateof
Socrates,
he
retired
to
Chalcis
in
Euboea.
There,
away
from
his
school,
in
322
he
died.
(A
tomb
hasbeen
found
in
our
time
inscribed
with
the
name
ofBiote,
daughter
ofAristotle.
But
is
this
our
Aristotle
?)
Such
is
our
scanty
knowledge
ofAristotle's
life,
which
seems
to
have
been
prosperous
by
inheritance
and
position,
and
happy
by
workand
philosophy.
His
will,
which
was
quoted
by
Her-mippus,
and,
as
afterwards
quoted
by
Diogenes
Laertius,
has
come
down
to
us,
though
perhaps
not
complete,
supplies
some
further
details,
as
follows:
Antipater
is
to
be
executor
with
others.
Nicanor
is
to
marry
Pythias,
Aristotle's
daughter,
and
to
takecharge
of
Nicomachus
his
son.
Theophrastus
is
to
beone
of
the
executors
if
he
will
and
can,
and
if
Nicanor
should
die
toact
instead,
if
he
will,
in
reference
toPythias.
The
executors
and
Nicanor
are
to
takecharge
of
Herpyllis,
"
because,"
in
the
words
of
the
testator,
"
she
hasbeen
good
to
me,"
and
to
allowher
to
resideeither
in
thelodging
by
the
garden
at
Chalcis
or
in
thepaternal
house
at
Stagira.
They
are
to
provide
for
the
slaves,
who
in
some
casesare
to
be
freed.
They
are
to
see
after
the
dedication
of
four
images
by
Gryllion
of
Nicanor,Proxenus,Nicanor's
mother
and
Arimnestus.
They
areto
dedicate
animage
ofAristotle's
mother,
and
to
see
that
the
bones
of
his
wife
Pythias
are,
as
she
ordered,
taken
up
and
buried
with
him.
On
this
will
we
may
remark
that
Proxenus
is
saidto
have
been
Aristotle's
guardian
after
the
death
of
his
father,
and
to
have
been
the
father
of
Nicanor;
that
Herpyllis
of
Stagira
was
the
mother
of
Nicomachus
by
Aristotle;
and
that
Arimnestus
was
thebrother
of
Aristotle,
who
also
had
a
sister,
Arimneste.
Every
clause
breathes
the
philosopher's
humanity.
II.
DEVELOPMENT
FROM
PLATONISM
Turning
now
from
the
man
to
the
philosopher
as
we
know
him
best
in
his
extant
writings
(see
Aristoteles,
ed.
Bekker,
Berlin,
1831,
the
pages
of
which
we
use
for
our
quotations),
we
find,
instead
of
the
generaldialogues
of
Plato,
special
didactic
treatises,
and
a
fundamental
difference
of
philosophy,
so
great
as
to
have
divided
philosophers
into
opposite
camps,
and
made
Coleridge
say
that
everybody
is
born
either
a
Platonist
or
an
Aristotelian.
Platonism
is
the
doctrinethatthe
individuals
we
call
things
only
become,but
a
thing
is
always
one
universal
form
beyond
many
individuals,
e.g.
one
good
beyond
seeming
goods;
and
that
without
supernatural
forms,
which
are
models
of
individuals,
there
is
nothing,
no
being,
no
knowing,
no
good.
Aristotelianism
is
the
contrary
doctrine:
a
thing
is
always
a
separate
individual,
a
substance
(oixria),
natural
such
as
earthor
supernatural
suchas
God;
and
without
theseindividual
substances,
whichhave
attributes
and
universals
belonging
to
them,
there
is
nothing,
tobe,
to
know,
to
be
good.Philosophic
differences
are
best
felt
by
their
practical
effects:
philosophically,
Platonism
is
aphilosophy
of
universalforms,
Aristotelianism
a
philosophy
of
individual
substances:
practically,
Plato
makes
us
think
first
of
the
super-
natural
and
the
kingdom
of
heaven,
Aristotle
of
thenatural
and
the
whole
world.
So
diametrical
a
difference
could
not
have
arisen
atonce.
For,
though
Aristotle
was
different
from
Plato,
and
brought
with
him
from
Stagira
a
Greek
and
Ionic
but
colonial
origin,
a
medicaldescent
and
tendency,
and
a
matter-of-fact
worldly
kind
of
character,
nevertheless
oncoming
to
Athens
aspupil
of
Plato
he
must
havebegun
with
his
master'sphilosophy.
What
then
in
ARISTOTLE
whenhesays
that
Aristotle was
tutor
ofAlexanderfor eightyears; for in 340, whenPhilipwent
to
war withByzantium,Alexander becameregent
at
home,
at
the age ofsixteen.Fromthis
date
Aristotle probably
spent
much time
at
his paternal housein his
native
city
at
Stagira
as
apatrioticcitizen.Philip
had
sacked
it
in 348: Aristotle induced himor
his
son
to
restore it,made for
it
a new constitution,
and
in
return
was celebratedina festival
after
his
death. All these vicissitudes made him a man