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Head and Neck 7

Head and Neck 7

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Published by Heba S Radaideh

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Published by: Heba S Radaideh on Feb 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/11/2013

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 Muscles and root of the neck The muscles of cervical region are classified into 3 groups:1-Superficial musclesPlatysma , SCM , Trapezius2-Hyoid related musclesSupra Hyoid Muscle , Infra Hyoid Muscle3-Cervical vertebral musclesAnt,Lat,Post.vertebral muscleSuperficial muscles
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The Platysma Muscle-Platysma means flat-It¶s the muscle of facial expression-It¶s Located in the fatty layer -the origin of platysma is classified inferiorlyAll the muscles in the face that are that are related to facial expression are innervated bythe 7
th
cranial nerve (facial nerve) this nerve provide motor innervations to all themuscles of facial expression.The platysma is located in the neck ,but it considered part from muscles of facialexpression ,so it¶s innervated by the branch of facial nerve which called cervical branchIt¶s Attachment :Sup. Attachment Inferior border of body of the mandible and the angle of the mouthInf.Attachment Delto pectoral deep fasciaIt¶s Action :Draws mouth corner inferiorly and draws skin of the neck superiorly
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SCM muscle
 
has a sterna and calvicle head and it descend all the way to lateral surfaceof mastoid process and o the lateral part of the superior nuchallinesIt¶s origin :Manubrium (sternal head)Med.1/3 of clavicle (clavicle head)-
 
The SCM separates the antero-lateral aspect of the neck inti anterior and posterior triangle and it separate the neck into superficial and deep part . so (anything outside the SCM is in the superficial and anythingdeep to the muscle is in the deep part in the neck )-
 
The jugular vein outside the SCM is the EJV while the one is deep toSCM is the IJVIt¶s insertion :mastoid processes of temporal bone and lateral part of the superior nuchal line Note: the occipital bone posteriorly has two lines , one sup. And oneinf. Nuchal line , these lines arise because of the muscular attachment .(the sup.nuchal line is made by the attachment os SCM laterally andthe attachment of trapezius medially )It¶s innervations :Spinal part of 11-
 
The reference muscles (SCM and trapezius) are innervated by cranialnerve number 11-
 
For the SCM the innervations is particularly from the spinal branch of accessory nerveIt¶s Action:Single turns head super laterally to opposite sideBoth flex the neck 
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Trapezius muscle-it¶s a reference muscle because it¶s located in the posterior part of theneck ( anything overlyed by this muscle is part of the trapezius aspect of the neck )- The trapezius muscle is divided into 3 parts :1-
 
The middle part : is at the level of scapula when it contracts itreflects the scapula ,bringing both scapula together 2-
 
The superior part : above the scapula and its function to elevatesthe scapula3-
 
The inferior part : below the scapula and its function to depressesthe scapulaIt¶s origin :
 
Med.1/3 of sup.nuchal lineEOP (the prominence of the back of your head) Nuchal ligament (its in middle of the neck posteriorly)Spinous processes (C7-T12)It¶s insertion :Lat.1/3 of clavicleAcromionSpine of scapulaIt¶s innervation:Cranial nerve number 11 (accessory nerve)Hyoid Related Muscles
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Suprahyoid muscles1-
 
Geniohyoid muscle : arise from mandible anteriorly-the mandible in the middle has two genoid tubercles or also calledmental spins (sup. And inf. Mental spines) from the inferior mentalspine there is a muscle that goes all the way down to the hyoid bone called geniohyoid muscle-from sup.mental spine to the tongue there is a muscle calledgenioglusus muscle-geniohyoid muscle is more in the oral cavity than in the neck soit¶s not considered a part of muscles in the neck .-under the geniohyoid muscle there is a flat muscle sheat whichcalled mylohyoid muscle .2- Mylohyoid muscle : floor of the mouth .anything above the themylohyiod you are in the oral cavity and anything below themylohyoid you are in the neck region .-mylo refers to the molars teeth-the mylohyiod extend from the molars on both sides all the way tothe middle where it meets with the body of the hyoid bone- inside the mandible there is a linear elevation called themylohyiod line which demarcates the attachment of the mylohyiodmuscle-innervation to the mylohyiod is from the nerve to mylohyiod andit comes from the inferior dental nerve (inferior alveolar nerve) before it goes into the mandible through the mandibular foramen itsends a small branch to thr mylohyiod muscle so it¶s called nerveto mylohyiod

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