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Tehran-Tabriz Intelligent Highway

Tehran-Tabriz Intelligent Highway

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Peyman Parvizi, Parastoo Parvizi
Peyman Parvizi, Parastoo Parvizi

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10/14/2013

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 58International Journal of 
Science and Engineering Investigations
vol. 1, issue 1, February 2012
Tehran-Tabriz Intelligent Highway
Peyman Parvizi
1
, Parastoo Parvizi
2
1
Islamic Azad University South Tehran branch
2
Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch
(
1
 
st_p_parvizi@azad.ac.ir,
2
parastoo_parvizi@Gmail.com)
 Abstract
- The need to implement intelligent highways is muchmore emphasized with the growth of vehicle production line aswell as vehicle intelligence. The control of intelligent vehiclesin order to reduce human error and boost ease congestion is notaccomplished solely by the aid of human resources. Thepresent article is an attempt to introduce an intelligent controlsystem based on a single central computer. In this project,central computer, without utilizing Global Positioning System(GPS), is capable of tracking all vehicles, crisis managementand control, traffic guidance and recording traffic crimes alongthe highway. By the help of RFID technology, vehicles areconnected to computerized systems, intelligent light poles andother available hardware along the way. By the aid of WiMaxcommunicative technology, all components of the system arevirtually connected together through local and global networksdevised in them and the energy of the network is provided bythe solar cells installed on the intelligent light poles.
 Keywords-
 Intelligent Highway; Intelligent Light Pole; Highway Automation.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Tehran to Tabriz freeway is an important transit road thatconnects Iran's industrial zones to Tabriz and Turkey.
Fig. 1 Tehran-Tabriz Highway
Iran with the annual traffic fatalities of 28000 people hasthe highest traffic fatality rate in the world. The rate of trafficaccidents in Iran are twenty times more than global average[1].
TABLE I. TEHRAN
 
 – 
 
QAZVIN
 
C
AR
A
CCIDENTS
S
TATISTICS
 Headtraumasoft tissueinjuryFractures abdominalinjurychesttrauma49% 48% 47% 12% 13%
II.
 
COMPONENTS
 
OF
 
THE
 
SYSTEM
 A.
 
 Radio Frequency Identification
RFID is an electronic method of exchanging data over radiofrequency waves. There are three major components for aRFID system: Transponder (Tag), Antenna and a Controller.RFID tags can be active, semi-passive (semi-active) or passive[3].
RFIDActive RFID tags have their owninternal power source, which areused to power any ICs and togenerate the outgoing signalSemi-passive RFID tags are verysimilar to passive tags except for theaddition of a small batteryPassive RFID tags have no internalpower supply
 
Fig. 2 RFID types
•Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. The
minute electrical current induced in the antenna by theincoming radio frequency signal provides just enough powerfor the CMOS integrated circuit (IC) in the tag to power up andtransmit a response. Most passive tags signal by backscatteringthe carrier signal from the reader. This means that the antennahas to be designed to both collect powers from the incomingsignal and to transmit the outbound backscatter signal.
•Semi
-passive RFID tags are very similar to passive tagsexcept for the addition of a small battery. This battery allowsthe tag IC to be constantly powered. This removes necessitythe aerial to collect power from the incoming signal. Therefore,Aerials can be optimized for the backscattering signal. Semi-passive RFID tags are faster in response and therefore strongerin reading ratio compared to passive tags.
•Active RFID tags or beacons, on the other hand, have their 
own internal power source, which are used to power any ICsand to generate the outgoing signal. They may have longerrange and larger memories than passive tags, as well as theability to store additional information sent by the transceiver.
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Volume 1, Issue 1, February 201259www.IJSEI.com Paper ID: 10112-12To economize power consumption, many beacon concepts areoperated at fixed intervals [4], [5].
TABLE II. THE
 
COMPARISON
 
OF
 
RFID,
 
GPS
 
AND
 
WIFIRFID(Active) WiFiGPSPower Usage Low to Medium High MediumData rate Low to Medium High Not ApplicableCoverage Medium High Very HighSecurity Medium High Not Applicable
 B.
 
Solar cell
A solar cell is a device which generates electricity directlyfrom visible light by means of the photovoltaic effect. Thedevelopment of solar cell technology begins with the 1839research of French physicist Antoine-César Becquerel.Becquerel observed the photovoltaic effect whileexperimenting with a solid electrode in an electrolyte solutionwhen he saw a voltage develop when light fell upon theelectrode.Various solar cells composed of various materials havebeen developed in the last decades. Cells are typicallyclassified as crystalline or thin film. Crystalline silicon; thesetypes of cells contain two layers, positive layer and negativelayer just like in most semiconductors. Positive layer exist onthe top side whereas negative layer exists on button. Electricfield is created with in these layers. Photons from sun lightstrikes on semiconductors in result electrons are released,electrons are electric charge. This electricity is transferred asdirect current (DC) in panel. Thin film; in these form of solarcells atoms arrangement is not in particular order. It is veryefficient type of cell; it can convert over 90% of usable solarenergy to electricity when it is exposed to light only by usingamorphous silicon thin film cell which is only one micronthick. Thin film cells have advantage of being cost effective;they are required lesser amount semiconductor materials [6].
CrystallineSiliconThin FilmMonocrystallineSiliconMulticrystallineSiliconAmorphous siliconCopper-indium-diselenideCadmium-telluride
Cell Types
 
Fig. 3 Cell types
III.
 
PROJECT
 
UNDER
 
STUDYThe general process of the system is as the following: in thementioned system, all the vehicles are equipped with RFID.Along the highway, intelligent light poles which are equippedwith RFID Reader, Solar Cells, etc. are used. In the entry andexit points on highway, road sign readers are used foractivating/emitting record through local and global networkswith WiMax technology to the central computer. Light poleswhose energy is provided through solar cells cover both sidesof the highway in the form of every three poles [7].
Car entry
Accident probabilityDevastationprobabilityCar GuidanceTraffic crime detection
IntelligentinformationDriver informationCar tag informationData CenterPolice centeremergency centerS.O.S center
 
Fig. 4 Flowchart of system
 Cars and intelligent light poles sensors communicate withtogether by Short Range Communications protocol. RFID andWIMAX technologies allow vehicles to send and receiveinformation to intelligent light poles sensors on the highway.Signals from vehicles will carry data such as car ID , position,etc. on the other hand; signal from intelligent light poles, willcarry Data such as information about traffic conditions,accidents, the weather, etc. If one car stops suddenly or movein wrong direction, data center can send information tointelligent light poles on the road [8].
Fig. 5 collecting the information of the cars
 
 
International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, Volume 1, Issue 1, February 201260www.IJSEI.com Paper ID: 10112-12The operations conducted by the components of the systemare as the following:
 
Recording information on the vehicle’s
tag whileentering the highway.
 
Emitting signals through RFID to the intelligent lightpoles along the highway.
 
Disseminating information such as traffic guidance andwarning through the intelligent light poles to the carsalong the highway.
 
Collecting the information of the cars along the way inthe particular installed places and disseminating themto the central computer.
 
Removing the information off the vehicle’s tag whileleaving the highway and recording it in the vehicle’s
records.IV.
 
METHODOLOGY
 
EMPLOYEDIn this model, due to the presence of 3 lines, the cyclingsystem including 3 light poles are used for controlling thehighway [9].In the first phase, all the vehicles that tend to move alongthe highway pass under the installed readers on the road lines,by which the vehicle is reported to the data center. Due to thevehicle user type, either private or public, the followingoperations are done [10].
StartChecking the driving licenseRecording information on the
vehicle’s tag
The exchange of informationbetween the vehicle and theintelligent light poleCollecting the recorded
information on the vehicle’s tag in
the specified installed places alongthe highwayRemoving the tag information and
transmitting it to the driver’s
record (
driver’s license
) whileleaving the highwayEnd
Fig. 6 Flowchart of steps
After analyzing the mentioned factors, if there is a problemwith the vehicle, it is guided to a suitable exit. While movingalong the highway, the vehicle constantly reports itself through using communicative signals between the tags and thepresent readers in the intelligent light poles [11],[12].
startVehicle usertypePrivate publicChecking thebill of lading/trade statusGuiding thevehicle to theright exitIssuing thelicenseTechnicalcapacity of thevehicle
Driver’s
Capacity(qualification)Financialcapacity andtraffic crimesPassNot PassNot PassPassNot PassPass
 Fig. 7 Mechanism of system
 The vehicle may fall under the following circumstances:
 
Horizontally: moving along one line.
 
Vertically: moving along different lines.
 
Stop.
 A.
 
 Horizontally
In this case, the vehicle may fall under two situations.
 
Moving along the right direction and in one line.
 
Moving along the counter direction: the reverse lightpole numbers appear on the tag.
 B.
 
Vertically
Due to the fact the area is covered by the intelligent lightpoles, in case of changing lines, different numbers will appearon the tag which can be detected by traffic crime software.

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