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10/31/2012

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LoadCombinationStudiesforReinforceConcreteSlabs 
K.KrishnanNair,A.MeherPrasadandD.Meno
DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering,StanfordUniversity,CAUSA,94305.(CorrespondingAuthorStructuralEngineeringLaboratory,DepartmentofCivilEngineering,Indian InstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai,India673601. 
Abstract 
Inthispaper,thereliabilityanalysisofRCtwo-wayandone-wayrectangularslabs underuniformlydistributedloadingisinvestigated.First,loadmodelingandap- proximatemethodsofreliabilityanalysisarereviewed.TherelevantdeterministidesignprocedureforRCslabsisexplained.Next,themodellingofthebasicvariablesisdescribed,followingwhich,thelimitstatefunctionissetup.Finally,the reliabilityanalysesofone-wayandtwo-wayslabswithdierentboundaryconditions usingthevarioustimevariantreliabilitymethodsaredescribed.Theresultsofthe analysesarediscussedinthecontextoftheIndiancodeofpracticeIS-456. 
1Introduction 
Duringthelifetimeofanystructure,itissubjectedtodierentloads.Mosoftheseloadsarerandomandexhibitspatialandtemporalvariations.Thesloadsmayactsinglyorincombinationwithoneanother.Thus,itisnecessarytomodeltheseloads,accountingfortheirvariabilityandtostudytheicombinationcharacteristics.Theseloadsmayberealisticallymodelledinprobabilisticframeworkasrandomprocesses.Loadsmaybebroadlyclassied intomicro-scale(veryclosetothenaturalperiodofthestructure)andmacro- scaleuctuations(largerthanthenaturalperiodofthestructure)according totheirtimeperiods.Theformerisessentiallydynamic,whereasthelatteriprimarilystatic.Althoughextensiveresearchhasbeencarriedinthecaseof 
Emailaddresses
kknair@stanford.edu 
prasadam,dmenon@civil.iitm.ac.in 
(K.KrishnanNair,A.MeherPrasadandD.Menon)
PreprintsubmittedtoElsevierNovember15,200
 
micro-scaleloading(windandearthquakeloads)andtheassociatedstructural response,itisseenthatmacro-scaleloadinghasnotbeenexploredindetailThevariabilityofloadingonstructuresisknownfromtheresultsofloadsurveysandeldmeasurements(MitchellandWoodgate,1971;Culver,1976)Duringthelifetimeofanystructure,itissubjectedtomanyloadsthatex- hibittemporalandspatialrandomness.Theloads(dead,live,wind,earth- quake,etc.)mayactindividuallyorincombinationwithotherloads.The`load combination'problemhasbeentraditionallyhandledbyusingexperienceand  judgement.However,theseover-simpliedproceduresfailtorationallyaccount foruncertaintiesandrisk.Inrecognitionoftheseshortcomings,code-makinauthoritiesinsomecountriesareengagedinaprocessof`codecalibration'anformulationofimprovedrecommendations.Firstandforemostinthisprocedureisthemodellingoftheindividualloadsandthentheloadcombination problem.Thepresentlyusedmodelsforloadmodellingandloadcombination studiesarereviewedinthefollowingsections
2ReviewofLoadandResistanceModel
Ellingwoodetal(1980)hasclassiedloadsintopermanent,sustainedand transientloadcases(Fig.2.1).Permanentloads(deadloads)maintainacon- stantmagnitudewitharelativelysmallrandomvariation.Sustainedloads(live loads)maybethoughtofasstepfunctionsintime.Transientloads(extremwindforcesandearthquakeforces)arethosethatoccurinfrequentlyandlasforaveryshortdurationandcouldbethoughtofaspulses.Inthissection, thedead,liveandwindloadsusedforcodecalibrationarereviewed.Itisseen thatGaussianandrenewalpulseprocessesprovideareasonablerepresentation ofthemacro-timeloading. 
2.1DeadLoa
Thedeadloadusuallyconsistsoftheself-weightofthestructure.Theselfweightcomprisestheweightofstructuralandnon-structuralcomponents.Iisseenthatdeadloadhasthefollowingcharacteristics
Theprobabilityofoccurrenceatanarbitrarypointintimevalue(APIT)iclosetoone 
Thevariabilitywithtimeisnormallynegligibl
Theuncertaintiesissmallincomparisontootherloadsandisthusmodelled asanormalorlog-normalrandomvariabl
 
Thebasicloadmodelisgivenby 
w
DL
=
ˆ 
γ 
conc
dV 
(1wher
γ 
conc
istheequivalentunitweightofthematerialand 
isthevolumboundedbytheboundariesofthematerial
2.2LiveLoa
Theliveload(sometimesreferredtoas`imposedload')usuallyconsistsof theweightofthefurniture,equipment,andtheresidentsofthebuilding. Theliveloadiscategorisedintermsofoccupancysuchasocebuildingsdomesticbuildings,hotels,etc.Theliveloadismodelledasarandomelvaryingbothspatiallyandtemporally.Withrespecttothetemporalvariation, ithasasustainedpartaswellasatransientpart(Ellingwoodetal,1980)Thesustainedpartgenerallyconsistsofthegravityloadingduetofurnitureequipment,people,etc.Itisseenthatthemagnitudeofsustainedloading dependsonthetypeofoccupancyandcanvaryfromtimetotime,butinearlyconstantwithinagiventimeinterval(Fig.2.1b).Thetransientpartof theloadincludesgravityforceduetoextraordinaryloadssuchastemporarstorage,crowdingofpeople,etc.Thishasaveryshortdurationtime(Fig. 2.1c),whichmaybemodelledasimpulsemodelling.Somefeaturesofthelive loadsinocebuildingsobtainedbyloadsurveys(MitchellandWoodgate1971;Culver,1976;Choi,1991)are
Occupancychangesproducechangesinthesustainedloading; 
Variationofloadingwithinroomsandbetweenroomsbearssomecorrela- tion
Correlationexistsbetweenloadingsondierentoors
LoadingintensityisareadependentThebasicmodelisgivenas(PierandCornell,1973;McGuireandCornell1974;CorotisandTsay,1983)
w
ij
(
x,y
) =
m
+
γ 
bldg
+
γ 
flr
+
ε
ij
(
x,y
)
(2wher
w
ij
isthearbitrarypointintime(APIT)loadintensityatco-ordinate
(
x,y
)
onthe 
i
th
oorofthe 
 j
th
building
m
isthemeanoftheloadintensity; 
γ 
bldg
isthedeviationoftheoorloadfromthemean 
m
forbuildin
j
γ 
flr
ithedeviationoftheoorloadfromthemea
m
foroor 
i
;and 
ε
ij
isazermeanrandomeldtodescribethespatialvariabilityontheithoorofthe 

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