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1 Intro

# 1 Intro

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07/03/2015

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1 `Introduction
We consider systems that can be written in the following general form, where x is thestate of the system, u is the control input, w is a disturbance, and f is a nonlinear function.),,,(
wu x f  x
=
&

pmn
wu x
,, We are considering dynamical systems that are modeled by a finite number of coupled,first-order ordinary differential equations. The notation above is a vector notation, whichallows us to represent the system in a compact form.
Key points

Few physical systems are truly linear.

The most common method to analyze and design controllers for system is tostart with linearizing the system about some point, which yields a linear model,and then to use linear control techniques.

There are systems for which the nonlinearities are important and cannot beignored. For these systems, nonlinear analysis and design techniques exist andcan be used. These techniques are the focus of this textbook.

In many cases, the disturbance is not considered explicitly in the system analysis, that is,we consider the system described by the equation),,(
u x f  x
=
&
. In some cases we willlook at the properties of the system when f does not depend explicitly on u, that is,),(
x f  x
=
&
. This is called the
unforced response
of the system. This does notnecessarily mean that the input to the system is zero. It could be that the input has beenspecified as a function of time,
u = u(t)
, or as a given feedback function of the state,
u =u(x)
, or both.When f does not explicitly depend on t, that is, if )(
x f  x
=
&
, the system is said to be
autonomous or time invariant
. An autonomous system is invariant to shifts in the timeorigin.We call x the state variables of the system. The state variables represent the minimumamount of information that needs to be retained at any time t in order to determine thefuture behavior of a system. Although the number of state variables is unique (that is, ithas to be the minimum and necessary number of variables), for a given system, thechoice of state variables is not.
Linear Analysis of Physical Systems
The linear analysis approach starts with considering the general nonlinear form for adynamic system, and seeking to transform this system into a linear system for the purposes of analysis and controller design. This transformation is called
linearization
and is possible at a selected operating point of the system.
Equilibrium points
are an important class of solutions of a differential equation. Theyare defined as the points x
e
such that:0
=
e
x
&
A good place to start the study of a nonlinear system is by finding its equilibrium points.This in itself might be a formidable task. The system may have more than oneequilibrium point. Linearization is often performed about the equilibrium points of thesystem. They allow one to characterize the behavior of the solutions in the neighborhoodof the equilibrium point.If we write x, u and w as a constant term, followed by a perturbation, in the followingform:
wwwuuu x x x
δ  δ  δ
+=+=+=
000
We first seek equilibrium points that satisfy the following property:

0),,(
000
=
wu x f
We then perform a multivariable Taylor series expansion about one of the equilibrium points x
0
, u
0
, w
0
. Without loss of generality, assume the coordinates are transformed sothat x
0
= 0. HOT designates Higher Order Terms.),,(...),,(
2220000000
wu x HOT w w f uu f  x x f wu x f  x x
δ  δ  δ  δ  δ  δ  δ
++++=+
&&
We can set:
000
,,
w f u f  B x f  A
=Γ==
The dimensions of A are n by n, B is n by m, and
Γ
is n by p.We obtain a linear model for the system about the equilibrium point (x
0
, u
0
, w
0
) byneglecting the higher order terms. Now many powerful techniques exist for controller design, such as optimal linear statespace control design techniques, H
control design techniques, etc… This produces afeedback law of the form:
xGu
δ  δ
=
This yields:)(
00
x xGuu
=
Evaluation and simulation is performed in the following sequence.
wu B x A x
δ  δ  δ  δ
Γ++=
&