Created by Jijith Nadumuri at 10 Jan 2010, 15:20 GMT+0600 and updated at 18 Sep 2010, 11:28GMT+0600The following table shows the various kingdoms, provinces and tribes mentioned in theepicMahabharata. As kingdoms they represent a geographical region that existed in ancient Indiawhich was then known as theBharatavarshaand as theJamvudvipa(the continent of the Jamvutree). As tribes they existed at some geographical region at some point of time and moved toother regions or spread into multiple regions at different points of time.Gandhara
(Peshawar)were cities in this Gandhara kingdom. Takshasila was founded byRaghava Rama's brother Bharata. Bharata's descendants ruled this kingdom afterwards. During epic period it wasruled by Sakuni's father
, Sakuni and Sakuni's son.Arjunadefeated Sakuni's son during his post-war military campaign for Yudhisthira'sAswamedhaYagna.Janamejaya,a Kuru king in Arjuna's line, conquered Takshasila, probably then ruled by the NagaTakshaka.Heconducted a massacre called
meaning the slaughter of the snakes, in which theNagarace was nearlyexterminated. This massacre was stopped by aBrahminnamedAstika,whose mother was a Naga. Nagas wereconsidered as a super human tribe, inPuranas.Naga literally means aSerpentor a serpent-god. The Nagas could be a group of people who inhabited India during epic periods who worshiped snakes.It is speculated that another super human tribe called theGandharvaswere originally inhabitants of the Gandharakingdom. Gandharvas were well versed in music and art. This explains why there is much Gandhara influence inIndian Classical Music. Gandhara form of sculpturing is also famous (very close toGreek sculpturing).TheYadavachief Bala Ramasaw many Gandharva settlements on the banks of Saraswati River , not far fromGandhara, during his pilgrimage over Saraswati river basin. The Gandharva
, probably were princes from Gandhara. The last twoYugas(prehistoric periods) were named after them. Kuru KingDhritarashtra's wife was from Gandhara (a Gandharvi) well known by the nameGandhari. There was aGandhrava also by the name Dhritarashtra. (SeeGandharva Kingdom
References in Mahabharata
Gandhara, a kingdom in Ancient India (Bharata Varsha)
Gandhara is mentioned as a hilly country at (5,30).Yavanas,Kamvojas,Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras werementioned together as foreigners at (12,206). In the
, they were nowhere on earth (meaning AncientIndia). It is from the
that they have had their origin and began to multiply. When the terrible periodcame, joining Treta and the Dwapara, theKshatriyas,approaching one another, engaged themselves in battle.
Another group comprising Andrakas,Guhas, Pulindas, Savaras, Chuchukas,Madrakaswere also mentioned along with the first group.
Gandhara King Suvala
Suvala (1,110) was a king of Gandhara during theMahabharata period. His sons wereSakuni,Sauvala, Achala,Vrishaka and Vrihadvala (1,188). All of them were Gandhara chiefs. Sakuni lived in the court of Kurus, as acouncillor of kingDuryodhana.His sister Gandhariwas the mother of Duryodhana.Suvala was present in theself-choice event of Draupadiand in the Rajasuya sacrifice of PandavakingYudhisthira.Sakuni was a skilleddice-player. (2,57). Gaya, Gavaksha, Vrishava, Charmavat, Arjava, and Suka were mentioned as brothors of Sakuni, all of them being the wariors inKurukshetra War (6,91)
Other Gandhara Kings
Gandhara King Nagnajit and his sons were conquered byVasudeva Krishnato liberate king Sudarsanafrom their confinement(5,48) (16,6)