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Table Of Contents

0.1 Introduction
0.2 Caveats and Omissions
Part I: Towards the Einstein Equations
1 From the Einstein Equivalence Principle to Geodesics
1.1 Motivation: The Einstein Equivalence Principle
1.2 Coordinate Transformations in Minkowski Space
1.3 Metrics and Coordinate Transformations
1.4 The Geodesic Equation and Christoffel Symbols
1.5 Christoffel Symbols and Coordinate Transformations
2 The Physics and Geometry of Geodesics
2.1 An Alternative Variational Principle for Geodesics
2.2 A Simple Example
2.3 More on Geodesics and the Variational Principle
2.4 The Newtonian Limit
2.5 The Gravitational Red-Shift
2.6 Locally Inertial and Riemann Normal Coordinates
3 Tensor Algebra
3.1 From the Einstein Equivalence Principle to the Principle of General
3.2 Tensors
3.3 Tensor Algebra
3.4 Tensor Densities
3.5 * A Coordinate-Independent Interpretation of Tensors
4 Tensor Analysis
4.1 Tensor Analysis: Preliminary Remarks
4.2 The Covariant Derivative for Vector Fields
4.3 * Invariant Interpretation of the Covariant Derivative
4.4 Extension of the Covariant Derivative to Other Tensor Fields
4.5 Main Properties of the Covariant Derivative
4.6 Tensor Analysis: Some Special Cases
4.7 Covariant Differentiation Along a Curve
4.8 Parallel Transport and Geodesics
4.9 * Generalisations
5 Physics in a Gravitational Field
5.1 The Principle of Minimal Coupling
5.2 Particle Mechanics in a Gravitational Field Revisited
5.3 Electrodynamics in a Gravitational Field
5.4 Conserved Quantities from Covariantly Conserved Currents
5.5 Conserved Quantities from Covariantly Conserved Tensors?
6 The Lie Derivative, Symmetries and Killing Vectors
6.1 Symmetries of a Metric (Isometries): Preliminary Remarks
6.2 The Lie Derivative for Scalars
6.3 The Lie Derivative for Vector Fields
6.4 The Lie Derivative for other Tensor Fields
6.5 The Lie Derivative of the Metric and Killing Vectors
6.6 Killing Vectors and Conserved Quantities
7 Curvature I: The Riemann Curvature Tensor
7.1 Curvature: Preliminary Remarks
7.2 The Riemann Curvature Tensor from the Commutator of Covariant
7.3 Symmetries and Algebraic Properties of the Riemann Tensor
7.4 The Ricci Tensor and the Ricci Scalar
7.5 An Example: The Curvature Tensor of the Two-Sphere
7.6 Bianchi Identities
7.7 Another Look at the Principle of General Covariance
8 Curvature II: Geometry and Curvature
8.1 Intrinsic Geometry, Curvature and Parallel Transport
8.2 Vanishing Riemann Tensor and Existence of Flat Coordinates
8.3 The Geodesic Deviation Equation
8.4 * The Raychaudhuri Equation
9 Towards the Einstein Equations
9.1 Heuristics
9.2 A More Systematic Approach
9.3 The Weak-Field Limit
9.4 The Einstein Equations
9.5 Significance of the Bianchi Identities
9.6 * Comments on the Initial Value Problem and the Canonical For-
10.1 The Einstein-Hilbert Action
10.2 The Matter Lagrangian
10.3 Consequences of the Variational Principle
Part II: Selected Applications of General Relativity
11 The Schwarzschild Metric
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Static Isotropic Metrics
11.3 Solving the Einstein Equations for a Static Isotropic Metric
11.4 Basic Properties of the Schwarzschild Metric - the Schwarzschild
11.5 Measuring Length and Time in the Schwarzschild Metric
12 Particle and Photon Orbits in the Schwarzschild Geometry
12.1 From Conserved Quantities to the Effective Potential
12.2 The Equation for the Shape of the Orbit
12.3 Timelike Geodesics
12.4 The Anomalous Precessionof the Perihelia of the PlanetaryOrbits
12.5 Null Geodesics
12.6 The Bending of Light by a Star: 3 Derivations
12.7 A Unified Description in terms of the Runge-Lenz Vector
13 Approaching and Crossing the Schwarzschild Radius
13.1 Vertical Free Fall
13.2 Vertical Free Fall as seen by a Distant Observer
13.3 Infinite Gravitational Red-Shift
13.4 Tortoise Coordinates
13.5 Eddington-Finkelstein Coordinates, Black Holes and Event Hori-
13.6 The Kruskal-Szekeres Metric
13.7 * Varia on Black Holes and Gravitational Collapse
14 Interlude: Maximally Symmetric Spaces
14.1 Preliminary Remarks
14.2 Curvature and Killing Vectors
14.3 Homogeneous, Isotropic and Maximally Symmetric Spaces
14.4 The Curvature Tensor of a Maximally Symmetric Space
14.5 The Metric of a Maximally Symmetric Space I
14.6 The Metric of a Maximally Symmetric Space II
14.7 The Metric of a Maximally Symmetric Space III
15 Cosmology I: Basics
15.1 Preliminary Remarks
15.2 Fundamental Observations I: The Cosmological Principle
15.3 Fundamental Observations II: Olbers’ Paradox
15.4 Fundamental Observations III: The Hubble Expansion
15.5 Mathematical Model: the Robertson-Walker Metric
15.6 * Area Measurements in a Robertson-Walker Metric and Number
15.7 The Cosmological Red-Shift
15.8 The Red-Shift Distance Relation (Hubble’s Law)
16 Cosmology II: Basics of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmol-
16.1 The Ricci Tensor of the Robertson-Walker Metric
16.2 The Matter Content: A Perfect Fluid
16.3 Conservation Laws
16.4 The Einstein and Friedmann Equations
17 Cosmology III: Qualitative Analysis
17.1 The Big Bang
17.2 The Age of the Universe
17.3 Long Term Behaviour
17.4 Density Parameters and the Critical Density
17.5 The Universe Today
18 Cosmology IV: Exact Solutions
18.1 Preliminaries
18.2 The Einstein Universe
18.3 The Matter Dominated Era
18.4 The Radiation Dominated Era
18.5 The Vacuum Dominated Era
19 Linearised Gravity and Gravitational Waves
19.1 Preliminary Remarks
19.2 The Linearised Einstein Equations
19.3 Gauge Freedom and Coordinate Choices
19.4 The Wave Equation
19.5 The Polarisation Tensor
19.6 Physical Effects of Gravitational Waves
19.7 Detection of Gravitational Waves
20 * Exact Wave-like Solutions of the Einstein Equations
20.1 Plane Waves in Rosen Coordinates: Heuristics
20.2 From pp-waves to plane waves in Brinkmann coordinates
20.3 Geodesics, Light-Cone Gauge and Harmonic Oscillators
20.4 Curvature and Singularities of Plane Waves
20.5 From Rosen to Brinkmann coordinates (and back)
20.6 More on Rosen Coordinates
20.7 The Heisenberg Isometry Algebra of a Generic Plane Wave
20.8 Plane Waves with more Isometries
21.1 Motivation
21.5 Geodesics
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Lecture Notes on General Relativity - Mathias Blau

Lecture Notes on General Relativity - Mathias Blau

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Published by: deledicque on Feb 27, 2012
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