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74678353 Soft Computing Note

# 74678353 Soft Computing Note

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07/10/2013

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Soft Computing
Lecture Notes On-
SOFT COMPUTING (
CP 5105)

ByK. Sridhar Patnaik(Lecturer)&Rashmi Sahay (Lecturer)Computer Sc. Dept.Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra

Soft Computing
Lecture-1Fuzzy Set Theory:-
Probability theory has been an age old and effective tools to handle uncertainty.But it can be applied only to situation whose characteristics are based on random processes, that is processes in which the occurrence of event is strictly determined by chance.However, in reality, large classes of the problems arecharacterized by a non random process. Here uncertainty may arise due to partialinformation about the problem, or due to information which is not fully reliable, or due to inherent imprecision in the language with which the problem is defined or due to receipt of information from more then one source about problem which isconflicting. In this situation fuzzy set theory exhibit immense potential for effective solving of uncertainty in the problem.Fuzziness means
Vagueness
Fuzzy Versus Crisp:-
Crisp-Yes No Theory, Which demands binary type handling.Like today is Saturday –

Crisp setFuzzy-No definite yes or NoLike how is the Weather today –
%>
Fuzzy setFuzzy set theory from the basis of fuzzy logic.

Soft Computing
Crisp set
Universe of discourse: -

Universal set is the set which, with reference to a particular content, continuous all possible elements having the same characteristicsand from which set can be formed. Universal set is usually denoted by E.E.g.: The universal set of all students in a university
.
Set: -

A set is a well defined collection of objects. Is a object either belongs to or does not belong to the set. A set in certain contexts may be associated with itsuniversal set from which it is derived.Given A= { a
1
a
2
a
3 .. .. .. ..
a
n
}a
1
a
2
a
3
are the member of the set. This representation is known as listform.E.g.: A= {Gandhi, Bose, Nehru}A set may also be defined based on the properties the members have to satisfy.E.g.: A={x | P(x)}P is the property to be satisfied by x; P(x) also known as characteristicfunction.Pictorially set can be represented by Venn diagrams:
Membership: -

An element x is said to be a member of set A if x belongs to theset A.
Cardinality:
-

The number of elements in the set is called its cardinality.Cardinality is denoted by n(A) or |A| or AE.g.: A= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} |A|=5