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The possibility of artificial fusion explosion of giant planets and other objects of Solar system

The possibility of artificial fusion explosion of giant planets and other objects of Solar system

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Published by Turchin Alexei
Although apparently is false the assumption that drowning Cassini in the Saturn could lead to the nuclear explosion and the subsequent chain reaction of fusion and explosion of the planet, published scientific evidence suggests that it is theoretically possible thermonuclear detonation of layers with high levels of deuterium. Existence of such layers is hypothetical possibility for terrestrial planets, including Earth, the icy satellites and planets giants. This means that in the distant future, artificial detonation of such layers can be a means of space war or occur as a result of technological accident. This article discusses various theories about how thermonuclear detonation can occur at any astronomical objects, and what may be its impact on Earth. In most cases this means extinction of Earth's intelligent life.
Although apparently is false the assumption that drowning Cassini in the Saturn could lead to the nuclear explosion and the subsequent chain reaction of fusion and explosion of the planet, published scientific evidence suggests that it is theoretically possible thermonuclear detonation of layers with high levels of deuterium. Existence of such layers is hypothetical possibility for terrestrial planets, including Earth, the icy satellites and planets giants. This means that in the distant future, artificial detonation of such layers can be a means of space war or occur as a result of technological accident. This article discusses various theories about how thermonuclear detonation can occur at any astronomical objects, and what may be its impact on Earth. In most cases this means extinction of Earth's intelligent life.

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Published by: Turchin Alexei on Nov 23, 2008
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07/14/2012

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The possibility of artificial fusion explosion of giant planets and other objects of the Solar system
By A.V. Turchin, Russian Transhumanist Movement with JosephFriedlander aiding translation, rewriting to English.avturchin@mail.ruhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/8299748/Giant-planets-ignitionTranslated from RussianWorking draft 2, with Joseph Friedlander 
Disclaimer
: This is not a formal scientific paper, and it should not be used as proof that a thermonuclear explosion of giant planets is impossible. The topic deservesformal scientific investigation, more than it has so far received. My goal is only todraw attention to a topic upon which the fate of the human race may someday hinge.
Abstract
This article discusses various theories about how artificially caused thermonuclear detonation of giant planets and other objects of Solar System could betriggered, and what such an event’s impact on the Earth may be. In most cases thiswould mean the extinction of terrestrial life. The published scientific evidence suggests that thermonuclear detonation of layers with high content of deuterium in theatmospheres of giant planets is theoretically possible. Some estimates of the content of deuterium in the atmosphere of Jupiter show that it is only five times less than theminimum required level for the thermonuclear detonation (1 atom in 1600 versus 1 in300). This is too little safety margin in order to be sure that such reactions are not realistic. Naturally enriched deuterium layers are hypothetically possible in terrestrial  planets, including Earth, the icy satellites, comets and giant planets. In the distant  future, perhaps in the second half of the XXIth century, will be available means of detection of natural high concentration regions of deuterium in the solar system and creation of technical means for initiating the explosion of planets, which would makeartificial explosion of a planet practically feasible. This means that in the future suchartificial detonation may become a means for space wars, a tool of world blackmail,or occur as a result of technological accident. On a related subject, there is little possibility of such an explosion after collisions following ‘end of mission’ of space probes such as the Saturn spacecraft Cassini containing nuclear fuel elements, but not because
Cassini
can not explode, and not because the
 planet
can not explode, but because the energy of a hypothetical explosion of Cassini is not enough to initiate a successful detonation reaction of noticeable magnitude.
 
Contents
 
Introduction
The main problem with considering the possibility of giant planet explosionsis that people think that it is a ridiculous concept and dismiss the idea beforeconsidering the evidence. It reeks of bad science fiction. So they don't consider thearguments and miss the chance to find that the arguments are much more convincingthan commonly thought a priori. The same problem colors any discussion of strongAGI. (artificial general intelligence, an easily replicatable artificial mind that can‘teach’ its successors rapidly through uploading). Still, the reason these ideas becamethe subject of so many lurid fictions is because they
are
existential dangers, each intheir own way—and thus were compelling subjects for storytelling. The fact that badstories were written should not stop us from considering the scientific realities that thefictions were based upon.The most important issue to consider here is a possibility of runawaythermonuclear detonation of planets. The possible causes—deliberate detonation,accidents of exploration or cosmic collision or future industrial activity—we mayconsider later. First let us survey the underlying facts.1) According to the findings, published in the prestigious journal PhysicalReview (by prominent US nuclear military scientists, including Dr. Edward Teller’sapprentice), thermonuclear detonation (i.e. explosion), of a planet could happened atnormal pressure by the deuterium fusion reaction D + D, provided that theconcentration of deuterium is more than 1 to 300. (Relative to normal hydrogen).((Necessary conditions for the initiation and propagation of nuclear detonation wavesin plane atmospheres. Thomas A. Weaver and Lowell Wood, Physical review 20 - 1July 1979,http://www.lhcdefense.org/pdf/LHC%20-%20Sancho%20v.%20Doe%20-%20Atmosphere%20Ignition%20-%202%20-%20Wood_AtmIgnition-1.pdf)A recently published refutation of possible explosion of Saturn is lowquality, because it does not even mention that the reaction of detonation of deuteriumis possible. (“Project Lucifer: Will Cassini Turn Saturn into a Second Sun?http://www.universetoday.com/2008/07/24/project-lucifer-will-cassini-turn-saturn-into-a-second-sun-part-1/)2) Investigations conducted in the late 1990's took measurements thatshowed that the concentration of deuterium in the upper layers of Jupiter is 1 in 1600,which is only five (5) times smaller than the minimum required level for detonation.
"Hubble measures deuterium on Jupiter". Science News – Find Articles. 5 October 1996. Retrieved 2007-09-10.As mentioned in this article, this value also agrees with the Galileo entry probe measurement for Jupiter 
Later studies suggested a lesser ratio as below:
 Deuterium abundance on Jupiter is about 2.25×10−5 (roughly 22 atoms in amillion, or 15% of the terrestrial deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio); these ratios presumably reflect the early solar nebula ratios, and those after the Big Bang. However, other sources suggest a much higher abundance of e.g. 6×10−4 (6 atoms in10,000 or 0.06% atom basis). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deuterium
Even if the lower value is correct, point 3) below can cancel that benefit, aswill become apparent:
 
3) It was found that deuterium isotope separation easily happens by natural processes,and in particular that the concentration of heavy gases (such as helium) is increasingas gravitational settling and rainout in the interior of giant planets. (The so-called‘helium rain’) And such is most likely true for deuterium as well. Consequently, in the bowels of the giant planets may be regions of sufficient concentration of deuterium tosupport a detonation wave.And to reach these depths is not difficult, because the planet is liquid. (It should benoted that the temperature at depth in the giant planets is tens of thousands of degrees.However, depending on the results of computer modeling, (specifically on the timerequired for descent to target depths and the insulation efficiency of a many-layer sinking body containing the warhead) there may be in principle ways to insulate a bomb to a given pressure level if the concentration of thermonuclear fuel is known inthe target region before sinking the bomb there.)Thus the technology of explosion of the giant planets, in principle, may be reachablefor our civilization now.Finally, if somehow all the deuterium in the depths of Jupiter were to enter into a runaway thermonuclear reaction, then it will emit the energy equivalent of about
3000 years of luminescence of the Sun during a few tens of seconds.
That is enoughto disrupt the Earth's atmosphere and melt the upper few kilometers of soil, (anddeeper than that we cannot penetrate for shelter protection because of the hot interior of the earth) and destroy all future human colonies in the Solar system. Thus, theexplosion of the giant planets can be a powerful Doomsday Machine suitable for  blackmailing --on any given fringe issue--the entirety of human civilization.And if such weapons would be created, there is the risk of their use. Themore widespread the capability, the greater the probability of their use. Now we should look on the various risks in more detail.There are some events which are very improbable, but whose consequencecould be infinitely large (e.g. black holes on the Large Hadron Collider— 
if such athing could be done, it would end everything—at least for humanity.
). The possibilityof nuclear ignition of self-sustaining and spreading fusion reactions in giant planetslike Jupiter and Saturn which could lead to the explosion of said planet, is one of them.Several considerations suggest that an artificial explosion of the giant planetsis possible. Inside the giant planets are vast amounts of thermonuclear fuel under high pressure and at high density. This density for certain substances is higher (exceptwater, perhaps) than the density of these substances in any region of Earth.
 At 10,000 kilometers below Jupiter's cloud top liquid hydrogen reaches a pressure of 1,000,000 bar with a temperature of 6,000° K. At this state hydrogenchanges into a phase of liquid metallic hydrogen. In this state, the hydrogen atomsbreak down yeilding ionized protons and electrons similar to the Sun'sinteriorhttp://www.solarviews.com/eng/jupiter.htm

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