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046 Transition Metals 2

046 Transition Metals 2

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Published by Manan Bhatt

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Published by: Manan Bhatt on Nov 23, 2008
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06/20/2013

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Transition Metals 2 - Compounds and Reactions
C
 hem
 F
 actsheet
January 2003Number 46
1
To succeed in this topic you need to:Understand the principle of oxidation numbers.Understand types of bonding and molecular shapes.Understand the basics of Transition Metals (covered in Factsheet 38)After working through this Factsheet you will:Have more experience of transition metal compounds;Recall the reactions of transition metal ions with hydroxides and ammonia;Recall the oxidation states of vanadium, and how they can beinterconverted.The following simple test tube reactions illustrate the behaviour of transitionmetal ions.
Addition of aqueous alkali to transition metal ions
Practical 1 – Addition of sodium hydroxide solution
Dilute sodium hydroxide solution is added dropwise to aqueous transitionmetal ions. Initially a precipitate is looked for, then the sodium hydroxideis added to excess to find out if the precipitate will eventually re-dissolve.
Ion Addition of NaOH (aq) Excess NaOH (aq)
Cr
3+
Green pptGreen solutionMn
2+
Buff ppt, darkens in airPrecipitate does not dissolveFe
2+
Pale green ppt,browns on surfacePrecipitate does not dissolveFe
3+
Red brown pptPrecipitate does not dissolveCo
2+
Blue ppt, turns brown in airPrecipitate does not dissolveNi
2+
Pale greenPrecipitate does not dissolveCu
2+
Pale blue pptPrecipitate does not dissolveZn
2+
White pptColourless solutionThe equations for these reactions are similar; each of the transition metalions should be written as the hexa-aqua ion, except for zinc which forms atetra-aqua ion. In each case the precipitates formed are the simple hydroxidecompounds.For example:[Mn(H
2
O)
6
]
2+
(aq) + 2OH
(aq)
Mn(OH)
2
(s) + 6H
2
O (l)[Fe(H
2
O)
6
]
3+
(aq) + 3OH
(aq)
Fe(OH)
3
(s) + 6H
2
O (l)and for zinc,[Zn(H
2
O)
4
]
2+
(aq) + 2OH
(aq)
Zn(OH)
2
(s) + 4H
2
O (l)The reaction mechanism for this process is important and often examined.When aquatic transition metal ion react with hydroxide ions the reactionmechanism is
deprotonation
.
3+
H
2
OH
2
OOH
2
FeH
2
OH
2
OO
:
HHOH
:
 
-
3+
H
2
OH
2
OOH
2
FeH
2
OH
2
OO
:
H
 
-
+ H
2
Ofurther deprotonationNotice how a H
+
ion (a proton) is removed from the aqua ligand leaving ahydroxide ion. Note that this is
not
a ligand exchange.As can be seen from the results, few transition metal ions react in excesssodium hydroxide.Most metal hydroxides are basic, so the metal hydroxide precipitates formedin these reactions do not react in excess sodium hydroxide, itself a strongbase.However, some metal hydroxides (e.g. Cr(OH)
3
) are
amphoteric
, so
will
react with NaOH.Cr(OH)
3
(s) + 3OH
(aq)
[Cr(OH)
6
]
3
(aq)Deep green solution
Practical 2 – Addition of ammonia solution
Dilute ammonia solution is added dropwise to aquatic transition metalions. Initially a precipitate is looked for, then the ammonia solution isadded to excess to find out if the precipitate will eventually re-dissolve.Ion Addition of NH
3
(aq) Addition of excess NH
3
(aq)Cr
3+
Green pptPrecipitate does not dissolveMn
2+
Buff ppt, darkens in airPrecipitate does not dissolveFe
2+
Pale green ppt,Precipitate does not dissolvebrowns on surfaceFe
3+
Red brown pptPrecipitate does not dissolveCo
2+
Blue ppt, turns brown in airPrecipitate does not dissolveNi
2+
Pale greenBlue sloutionCu
2+
Pale blue pptDeep blue solutionZn
2+
White pptColourless solutionOn adding aqueous ammonia solution, it is hydroxide (OH
-
) ions, which areagain introduced and react with the transition metal ions.NH
3
(aq) + H
2
O(l)
NH
4+
(aq) + OH
(aq)The precipitates which form are therefore the metal hydroxides again, justas when sodium hydroxide was the aqueous alkali added.It is when the ammonia solution is added to excess that the reactions varywhen comparing results to practical 1.Ammonia is a
weak
base, too weak to react with the amphoteric metalhydroxides (e.g. Cr(OH)
3
).

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