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58 Applied Organic Chem

58 Applied Organic Chem

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Published by Manan Bhatt

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Published by: Manan Bhatt on Nov 23, 2008
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06/20/2013

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Applied Organic Chemistry
Number 58
1
C
 hem
 F
 actsheet
www.curriculumpress.co.uk
Before working through this Factsheet you should ensure that youunderstand all the organic chemistry covered so far on AS and A2This Factsheet concentrates on the uses of organic chemistry to produce:pharmaceuticalsfertilisersesters, oils and fatssoaps and detergentspolymersAfter working through this Factsheet you will have metthe use and impact of fertilizers in modern agriculturethe concept of pharmaceuticals being chemical compounds used inmedicine based on their structureexamples and uses of esters, oils and fatsthe making of soapssome polymers, their impact on the environment and biodegradability
Exam Hint 
– In this area of the A2 specifications you need to learn the basic facts – there is no shortcut to learning thoroughly the information provided! 
2.Nitrogenous fertilizers
Plants need to take in nitrogen to produce proteins and nucleic acids.Green plants can only do this by taking in the inorganic nitrate ion, NO
3
.Fertilizers do not need to contain the nitrate ion if they contain theammonium ion, NH
4+
because,oxidised byNH
4+
NO
3
soil bacteriaYou need to remember the above basic facts as well as the fact that thenitrate ion needs to be
dissolved in water
for plants to be able to absorb it.Fertilizers are best remembered in three categories:(a)
Natural organic fertilizers
e.g. manure, compost, dried blood.These natural materials have been used for thousands of years and,apart from producing nitrates by being broken down by bacteria, theyalso improve the quality of the soil.
ADVANTAGES
- slow release of the nitrate ion so no damage toplants and they also improve soil quality generally.
DISADVANTAGES
- low solubility in water; the time taken to break them down to the nitrate ion; low nitrogen content.(b)
Manufactured inorganic fertilizers
e.g. potassium nitrate, KNO
3
;ammonium nitrate, NH
4
NO
3
; ammonium sulphate, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
.The need to produce more food because of increasing world populationled to the development of inorganic fertilizers. They could be made aspowders or pellets for easy spreading over the ground.
ADVANTAGES
- higher nitrogen content and soluble in water (ionic)encouraging quick plant growth.
DISADVANTAGES
- being very soluble, they can be washed throughthe soil (‘leached’) and cause ‘eutrophication’ (excessive plant growthin rivers/ponds which leads to bacterial growth which lowers theoxygen content and affects aquatic life) before they are broken down.If they remain in the soil, they are released in ‘one dose’and candamage the plant with a too high concentration of nitrate – they needto be applied in carefully measured amounts.
N.B. The slower breakdown of the ammonium ion, NH
4+
by soilbacteria has to be balanced against the ‘leaching out’ effect andthe concentration of the fertilizer applied.
(c)
Manufactured organic fertilizer
e.g. urea, H
2
NCONH
2
Urea is an intermediate between the ‘natural organic’ and the‘manufactured inorganic’ fertilizers. Urea is a manufactured organicfertilizer.
ADVANTAGES
- very soluble in water; high nitrogen content (47%)compared to other fertilizers; releases its nitrogen slowly by hydrolysis(i.e. reaction with water) (NH
2
)
2
CO + H
2
O
2NH
3
+ CO
2
DISADVANTAGES
- its high solubility means it can be ‘leachedaway’ by rainwater.
1.Pharmaceuticals
(Drugs used as medical treatments)Drugs need to be targeted to particular parts of the body and there aretwo major groups to consider:(a)
Water soluble
- go into the blood and aqueous tissue of the body.They are soluble because they have ionic groups (e.g. COO
-
Na
+
)or groups which form hydrogen bonds (e.g. -NH
2
, -OH).They are called ‘
hydrophilic
’ groups (literally ‘water liking’).(b)
Fat soluble
- go into fatty tissue.They are soluble in fat because they have ‘
lipophilic
’ groups(literally ‘fat liking’) on the molecule (e.g. alkyl side chains –CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
).
Exam Hint 
- In your revision, focus on learning the hydrophilic and lipophilic groups so when presented with an unknown molecule you will be able to say if it is soluble in water or fat.e.g.Note the presence of the ioniside-chain that will make the molecule 
water-soluble 
.e.g.The long side chain makethis molecule 
soluble in fat 
.CO 
Na OCOCH 
 
+
-
CH 
CH 
CH 
CH 
CH 
CH 
CH 
NO 

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