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Noise Pollution

Noise Pollution

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Published by Avdhesh Chauhan
noise pollution
noise pollution

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Published by: Avdhesh Chauhan on Feb 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting,irritating, or damaging sounds are freely audible. As with other forms of 
pollution (such as heat and light pollution), noise pollutioncontaminants are not physical particles, but rather waves that interferewith naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment.Thus, the definition of noise pollution is open to debate, and there is noclear border as to which sounds may constitute noise pollution. In themost narrow sense, sounds are considered noise pollution if theyadversely affect wildlife, human activity, or are capable of damagingphysical structures on a regular, repeating basis. In the broadest sense of the term, a sound may be considered noise pollution if it disturbs anynatural process or causes human harm, even if the sound does not occuron a regular basis.The prevailing source of artificial noise pollution is from transportation.In rural areas, train and airplane noise can disturb wildlife habits, therebyaffecting the manner in which animals in areas around train tracks andairports hunt and mate. In urban areas, automobile, motorcycle, andeven entertainment noise can cause sleep disruption in humans andanimals, hearing loss, heart disease (as a result of stress), and in severecases even mental instability. A notable exception to the rule is theelectric, or hybrid-electric, automobile.
Hybrid vehicles
are so quite, infact, that legislation is pending to actually make them louder. This is inresponse to numerous injuries in which pedestrians, unaware of a hybridvehicle's presence, have been struck by such vehicles in parking lots andpedestrian crosswalks.Although most developed nations have government agenciesresponsible for the protection of the environment, no nation has a singlebody that regulates noise pollution. In the United States, regulation of noise pollution was stripped from the federal Environmental ProtectionAgency and passed on the the individual states in the early 1980's.Although two noise-control bills passed by the EPA are still in effect, theagency can no longer form relevant legislation. In the United States,Canada, Europe, and most other developed parts of the world, differenttypes of noise are managed by agencies responsible for the source of thenoise. Transportation noise is usually regulated by the relevanttransportation ministry, health-related work noise is often regulated byhealth ministries and worker's unions, and entertainment noise such asloud music is a criminal offense in many areas. As the bodies responsible
for noise pollution reduction usually view noise as an annoyance ratherthan a problem, and reducing that noise often hurts the industryfinancially, little is currently being done to reduce noise pollution indeveloped countries.
Sources of noise
All transportation systems create noise pollution. With residencescreated adjacent to factories, they experience noise pollution and itsadverse effects. Besides transportation noise, noise can come fromfactory appliances, power tools and audio entertainment systems.
easures of noise
 Noise pollution is measured in decibels. When noise is at 45 decibels,no human being can sleep, and at 120 decibels the ear is in pain andhearing begins to be damaged at 85 decibels.
A decibel is the standard for the measurement of noise. The zero on adecibel scale is at the threshold of hearing, the lowest sound pressure thatcan be heard, on the scale acc. To smith, 20 db is whisper, 40 db the noisein a quiet office . 60 db is normal conversation, 80 db is the level at whichsound becomes physically painful.
The Noise quantum of some of the cities in our country indicate their pitchin decibel in the nosiest areas of corresponding cities, e.g. Delhi- 80 db,Kolkata - 87,Bombay-85, Chennai-89 db etc.
3 Sources of Noise Pollution:- Noise pollution like other pollutants is alsoa by- product of industrialization, urbanizations and modern civilization.
Broadly speaking , the noise pollution has two sources, i.e. industrial andnon- industrial. The industrial source includes the noise from variousindustries and big machines working at a very high speed and high noiseintensity. Non- industrial source of noise includes the noise created bytransport/vehicular traffic and the neighborhood noise generated byvarious noise pollution can also be divided in the categories , namely,natural and manmade. Most leading noise sources will fall into the
following categories: roads traffic, aircraft, railroads, construction,industry, noise in buildings, and consumer products
Road Traffic Noise:-
In the city, the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaustsystem of autos , smaller trucks, buses, and motorcycles. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings, which produce acanyonin which traffic noise reverberates.
Air Craft Noise: -
  Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a newdimension to community annoyance, as the nation seeks to improve itsnap-of the- earthaircraft operations over national parks, wilderness areas ,and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimednational attention over recent years.
Noise from railroads: -
 The noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles, and switching andshunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities andrailroad workers. For example, rail car retarders can produce a highfrequency, highlevel screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at adistance of 100 feet, which translates to levels as high as 138, or 140 dB atthe railroad worker¶s ear.
Construction Noise:-
 The noise from the construction of highways , city streets , and buildings isa major contributor to the urban scene . Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers, air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks(and their back-up signals), and pavement breakers.
Noise in Industry: -
 Although industrial noise is one of the less prevalent community noise problems, neighbors of noisy manufacturing plants can be disturbed bysources such as fans, motors, and compressors mounted on the outside of  buildings Interior noise can also be transmitted to the community throughopen windows and doors, and even through building walls. These interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers, among whomnoise- induced hearing loss is unfortunately common.
Noise in building: -
Apartment dwellers are often annoyed by noise in their homes, especially

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