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85 - t-test

85 - t-test

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Published by: Manan Bhatt on Nov 23, 2008
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The Paired t-Test & When To Use It
The t-test is widely used within project work. This Factsheet will tell you when and how to use the paired t-test. Questions using thet-test may occur on exam papers, but you will not have to remember the formula - it will be given to you.Hypotheses and 1 or 2-tailed tests.
The t-test is used to compare two
means
(the mean is the normal "average"). As with all other statistical tests, this involves choosing between two
hypotheses
.For the t-test, the
null hypothesis
(H
0
) is
always
that the two means are equal - for example "mean length of leaves at the top of the tree = mean lengthof leaves at the bottom of the tree". It can
never
be that the means are different, or that one is bigger/smaller than the other. You
always
start out assumingthat the null hypothesis is true, and only change your mind if the evidence is good enough.The other hypothesis -
alternative hypothesis
(H
1
) - can take one of three forms (Table 1); the precise form of it tells you whether you are carrying outa
one-tailed 
or a
two-tailed 
test. A one-tailed test means that you are only considering one alternative - for example that the leaves are bigger at the top of the tree. A two-tailed test means you are considering either alternative - that the leaves could be either bigger or smaller at the top of the tree.
B io F actsheet
April 2001Number 85
1
Table 1. Alternative hypotheses for the t-test
Alternative HypothesisExample1-tailed or 2-tailedUse it if you are expecting....
mean 1 > mean 2mean leaf length at top > mean leaf length at bottom1-tailedleaves to be longer at the topmean 1 < mean 2mean leaf length at top < mean leaf length at bottom1 tailedleaves to be shorter at the topmean 1
mean 1mean leaf length at top
mean leaf length at bottom2-tailednot sure - could be either!
When can the t-test be used?
You can only use the t-test when the population your observations comefrom is
normally distributed 
. That means that if you were to collect thesame data from every member of the population and draw a graph of yourresults, you would get a symmetrical, bell-shaped graph (Fig 1).
Measurement
   N  o .  o   f   i  n   d   i  v   i   d  u  a   l  s  w   i   t   h   t   h  a   t  m  e  a  s  u  r  e  m  e  n   t
Fig 1. Normal distribution curve
What sorts of things are normally distributed?
Normally distributed variables must be
continuous
- this means that theycan take any value (like lengths), rather than only set values (like numbersof organisms - you can't have 2.85 spiders!)Generally speaking, anything that is
measured
will be normallydistributed. This includes length, width, height, weight and velocity.Anything that is
counted
(like numbers of organisms) or
calculated
(likea diversity index) will
not
be normally distributed. In these cases, youshould use the Mann-Whitney U-test instead.
Sample size
You cannot use the t-test unless you have at least 6 measurements in eachsample for the paired test.However, you will find it much easier to get a significant result if you havelarger numbers than this - aim for at least 10 in each sample.
Paired and Unpaired Tests
The t-test may be
paired
or
unpaired
. The calculations involved aredifferent in each case. This Factsheet concentrates on the method for the(commoner) paired test; a later Factsheet will deal with the unpaired test.Paired tests are used when the data occur in "natural" pairs. Examplesinclude:the same organism reacting to two different stimuli.comparisons of plant growth between points in the same position ondifferent sides of a hedge.measurements made on identical twins.Note that the pairs must be matched in a natural way - you cannot just decideto pair results up.The idea of pairing is to increase the chance that any differences really aredue to what you are investigating - e.g. which side of the hedge the point is- rather than due to other variations - e.g. soil quality.If a paired test is not applicable, then an unpaired test must be used.Table 2 shows some examples of investigations requiring paired andunpaired tests.
Exam Hint: 
- If you are unsure, it is better to use an unpaired test.Even if a paired test would have been suitable, it is not wrong to use an unpaired one (although it is harder to get a significant result). But using a paired test where it is not appropriate is 
definitely wrong 
and will not gain you marks! 
Table 2. t-test investigations
Investigation
Comparison of plant growth on twosides of a hedgerowEffect of different soil types on theyield of a crop plantEffect of pollution on vegetation
Paired or Unpaired?
PairedUnpairedUnpaired
 
Exam Hint: 
- Do not worry about what this means, but remember to use n - 1
Worked Example - paired t-test
Eight adults who normally ate a "junk-food" diet agreed to follow a "healthy" diet for two months. The following data gives their weights in kilogramsimmediately before and immediately after the two-month period.PersonABCDEFGH"Before" weight76.485.950.662.490.555.778.367.4"After" weight74.580.150.862.379.455.773.265.0Since we would expect a healthy diet to reduce weight compared to a junk-fooddiet, we have:H
0
:Mean weight "before" = Mean weight "after"H
1
:Mean weight "before" > Mean weight "after" So it is a 1-tailed testThis is paired, because we are considering the same people "before" and "after"PersonABCDEFGH"Before - "After"1.95.8-0.20.111.105.12.4
Step 1:
Write down the
hypotheses
, deciding which formof the alternative hypothesis you want to (use andso whether it is 1-tailed or 2-tailed).
Step 2:
Decide whether it is
paired
or
unpairedStep 3:
For a paired test, work out "1
st
value - 2
nd
value"for each individual
Table 3. t-table
Step 4:
Work out the mean of these differences by addingthem up and dividing by how many there are.
Step 5:
Calculate the standard deviation
s
, usings =where
Σ
x
2
means square each difference, then add upn = no. of values= mean of the differences
Step 6
:Work out the
test statistic,
using
Step 7:
Work out the
degrees of freedom
, usingdegrees of freedom = n - 1
Step 8:
Get a t-test table and
look up the value
for thesignificance level (usually5%), the degrees of freedomand whether it is a 1-tailed or 2-tailed test.
Step 9:Make a decision
- if your t-value is
bigger
than theone from the tables, you can
reject
the nullhypothesis. Otherwise you have to accept it.
Bio Factsheet
2
The paired t-test
(1.9 + 5.8 + -0.2 + 0.1 + 11.1 + 0 + 5.1 + 2.4)
÷÷÷÷÷
8 =
3.275
Σ
x
2
=1.9
2
+ 5.8
2
+(-0.2)
2
+ 0.1
2
+ 11.1
2
+ 0
2
+ 5.1
2
+2.4
2
= 192.28n = 8s = = 3.648degrees of freedom = 8 - 1 = 7We are carrying out a 1-tailed test;we will use a 5% significance level.We need to use 7 degrees of freedom.So our tables value is
1.895
Our test-value (2.539) is bigger than the tables value.So we reject the null hypothesis.So the mean weight before is significantly greater than the mean weight after.t-test =
Exam Hint: 
- When you are working out 
Σ
x
2
, you 
must 
square each value then add them - you 
cannot 
add then square afterwards.
Significance leveldf 0.1 0.050.025 0.01 0.005
 
5
1.4762.0152.5713.3654.032
6
1.4401.9432.4473.1433.707
7
1.4151.8952.3652.9983.499
8
1.3971.8602.3062.8963.355
9
1.3831.8332.2622.8213.250
10
1.3721.8122.2282.7643.169
11
1.3631.7962.2012.7183.106
12
1.3561.7822.1792.6813.055
 
Exam Hint 
- Do not worry about what this means, but remember to use n - 1
(76.4 - 74.5)
Σ
= add up
22
xnx
s1nx
2
275.3828.192
x
3.275
(8-1)3.648t-test = = 2.375

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