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91 - Taxonomy

91 - Taxonomy

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Published by Manan Bhatt

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Published by: Manan Bhatt on Nov 23, 2008
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Taronoxnyan$Classititation
By'studyinghis Factsheethestudent houldgain:.an understandingf theneedor classificationf organismsand the methods nvoh'ed nclassification..theabilitv touseand designdichotomouseys.
Theprinciplesandimportanceof taxonomyClassification stheprocessf sortingavarietl'ofitems nto mana-eeable-sroups.he studvof biologicalclassificationscalled axonomv orsystematics.A universally cceptedystemof classiflcations importantlbr scientistsf they are ocommunicate bout an organism. onfldent nthe knowledgehat hey are alking about hesamehing. talsoenablesrapidaccesso nlbrmationaboutaparticularypeof organism. heaim ofclassiflcationnbioloeyisthattreflects heevolutionarvelationships(phylogeny)etweenrganisms.sevolutionary nowled-seas ncreasedover heyeiirst hasbeennecessaryo modify andupdate heclassiflcationaccordingly.Methodsof classifyingorganismsOne of the simplestwaysof sorting hingsintogroupsstolookfbrdillbrences.Does he organism howaparticular-e ture'l f it doesputtonegroup,f itdoesnotputnto theothergroup.Sortingnto'haves'and'havenots' isthe basis orwhats described s artificial classification.This sa usefulapproach o dentifyingorganismshrough he creation fdichotomous eysseeater).A naturalclassification ystemusessimilarities etweenorganisms. Thesesimilaritiescanbeoltwotypes,homologousandanalogouschauacteristics:oHomologouscharacteristicsavean underlyingsimilarity of origin, structure ndpositionrrespective f function.For example. he lipperof a dolphin.armof a human.wingof apigeonandwingofa batarehomologousecausehey areall modiflcations f the samestructure, thevertebrateentadactyl5lingered) imb.oAnalogouscharacteristicsavesimilarityof tunctionbut the arenot homologous. orexample,hewingsofinsectsndbirdshavehesamelunction.light, but their structures reverydiftbrent.Thewingof aninsect s notdevelooed iom the basicoentadactvlimb.A modernsystem f natural lassillcation f organisms sesmorphological,anatomical.biochemical,behavioural,chromosomalandgeneticlingerprintingharacteristicsn an attempt oclassilyorganismsccordingto their evolutionaryphylogenetic)elationships. peciesreplacednthe samegrouponly on the basis of sharedhomologouseaturesandsharedevolutionaryhistory.Thetaxons of theclassificationAtaxon is agroupingofor-eanismshichsharesomebasic -eatures. verytaxon hasa status,orexample.hylum,class,order and so onwhich itshareswithother axa,and an ndividualname, br example, hephylumArrhropoda.herearebasically even evelsof taxon: rom the argest o the smallesthese re:kingdom,phylum,class,order, family,genusandspecies.
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ExamHint:- An easy waytorememberthis orderisbyusing thesaying:King PhilipCameOverFromGermanySwimmingAspecies s deflnedas agroupof organisms hatshowsmany markedphenotypicsimilarities n termsof extemal morphology.nternalanatomy.biochemistryndbehaviour.n addition, ndividualswithin aspeciesave hepotentialo breedwithothers n thegroup,producingiablefertile)offspringthat are themselvesapable fproducine iableoftspring.Thespeciessusuallyaken o be he basic axoncate-eory)bra classillcation ierarchy.Sometimes t ispossibleorecogniseufficient.subtlebutconsistentvariation witliinmembersof a species ojustitvsubdividing hegroup.Suchgroupsre alled ub-species.Aninternationallvccepted )/stemxists o nameorganisms. innaeusintroducedhebinomial nomenclaturesystem n the eighteenthentury.Each species aswoLatin names.he first nameshegenusand alwayshasa capital nitial etter.Thesecond ames heparticularpecieswitl'rinthegenus.This namealwayshasa ower-case nitial etter.Wheret isobviouswhichgenuss being ef-erredo. hegeneric artof thenamemaybe abbreviatedo its nitial etter(seeheprokaryotentableoverleaf). f asub-speciess recognisedhen a third namemay be used.oncemorestafiingwitha small nitial letter. t isacceptedracticeouseitalicswhena binomial s inprirrror underlinedwhenhand-written.Remember"-groupoJelatedpeciesJbrntsgenusartclelatedgetrcruJbt'maamily.Scvet'alelateclfantiliesgrouptoot'ntorders. ot'clersrttoclasses. 'lassesrttophyla(sittgularltt'lunt)arrclhvlairto kingdoms.Theclassification oflivingorganismsintofive kingdomsIt iscurrentlyacceptedhat hereare lve kingdoms. Thesearecalled:Prokaryotae: Protoctista: Fungi:Plantae: Animalia.The axonomicdivisionsare llustratedy the classificationffiveor-eanismsin Tableoverleaf.Youdo not haveorememberall of these arnescheckonvourspecillcation odeterminewhichorsanismsareisted).Exam Hint:-Makesurethatyouhave learntthe characteristiceaturesof eachkingdom.Questionsabout these areaskedfrequently.
 
ThxonomyandClassification
BioFactsbeet
Tablel. Classification of some organismsinthefive kingdomsTaxonE.coliSar,t,wrackYeastHorse chestnutHumanKingdomProkaryotaeProtoctistaFungi
Plantae
AnimaliaPhvlumGracilicutesPhaeophytaAscomvcotaAngiospermophytaChordataClassProteobacteria
Ph.vophvceae
AscomvcetesDicotl,ledoneaeMamnaliaOrder(garrunfluhdivisionFucalesEndom5rcetalcsSapindalesPrimates
Famill
Enterobacteriacae
Fucaceae
EndomvcetaceaeHippocastanaceae
Homidae
GenusEsc'heric'liuF ucus
Sacclnt'orttt'ct's
Aesculus
Honto
Speciescoli
sen'atus
c'crerisiae
ItiT,tpot'astouunt
sapterrsThedistinguishingcharacteristicsTermsmarkedwith'kareexolainednProkaryotaet...Cellshaveno nucleus..Cellshaveno membrane-boundrganelles..Cellsackor-eanellesased na 9+2 arrangementf microtubules.'i'.CellshavecircularDNA. Examples:ll bacteria,ncludin-e lue-greenacteria.Protoctista.Organisms ound in this kingdom are eukaryotes* hathavecharacteristicshatexcludehem rom an-v f theotherkingdoms. fan organismseukaryotic.ut s not a memberof theFun-ei, lantaeor Animalia hen t is a memberot'theProtoctista.Examples:allprotozoasuchasAntoeba,all nucleated lgaeand slimemoulds.Fungi.Eukaryotes.oPossessuterwallsmade rompolysaccharides.hewallscontainchitinbutno cellulose.oHeterotrophicnutrition.eithersaprophytic rparasitic.Notphotosynthetic..Storearbohydrate sglycogen..Vegetative artof mosttungi involvescoenocyticxhyphaet' hatlorm amvcelium."oReproduce y sporeproduction.The spores avenof-lagella.Examples:Mucor(pinmould.Pertic:illiul andAgaricusmushroom)PlantaeoMulticellulareukaryotes.oCellshave ellulosealls.oMajoritypossesshloroplastsnd arephotosyntheticutotrophs.Examples:mosses,'ernsndloweringplants.AnimaliaoMulticellulareukaryotes..Heterotrophicnutrition..Simpleranimalsarediploblastic'k nd show adialsymmetry*.oMore complex animals are triploblastic*and show bilateralsymmetry*..Someriploblastic nimalsavea coelom*.Examples:ellyfish,tapeworms.earthworms.nsects, ish, birds,mammals.Glossarl.oftermsProkar.votic:This ref-erso minute cellswhichlackamembrane-boundnuclcus.ackmcmbrane-boundrganelles,mdackanyorganelles ased na9+2 arrangementfmicrotubules. he1,'havesinglecircularchromosome(DNA)andma1' lsocontainsmallin-eletsf DNA known asplasmids.Eukaryotic: This ref.erso cellswhichhaveamembrane-bounducleuswithchromosomes.embrane-boundrganelles. uch as mitochondria.andorganellewitha9+2 arrangementf microtubules.uchascentrioles.Microtubules: Theseare ong. hollow, cirlindricalstructuresmade of aproteincalled ubulin. Thev run inall directions hrough he cytoplasm,makingup the cytoskeleton.They alsoarearrangednto a9 +2 arranqement fparallelunningubules.ma.liing p hestructure f centrioles.ilia and lagella.A transverseection throushalasellum sshownn Fis l.Fig 1. Electronmicrographof aflagellumin transverse section.microtubules(in9+2arran-gement)Hyphae:Theseare hewhitethread-like tructures hattorma networkmakingup the bodi' of afun-eus.Mycelium:This isthewholebody of the tungus,madeup ofhyphae.Coenocytic:This refers o a structure onsisting f a massof cytoplasmandnucleibutnotdividedntocells.('Svncvtial'isofien used as analternativeord brcoenocytic).Diploblastic:This refers o an animal hathas wo basicgermayers n itsbody, heectoderm nd heendoderm. erm ayers onsist f cells hatcan differentiatentoparticularissues.orinstance, ctodermcells candillbrentiatento nervous issue. ndodermellsdiff'erentiatentotheiningcells of the digestive ract.Fig 2shows a transverse ection hrclughadiploblastic nimalseanemone).Fig2. Transversesection through a diploblastic animalectodermendodermenteron(gutcavity)ofeachkingdom.theslossan'.
 
T[xonomyandClassifiation
BioFactsbeet
Radialsymmetrv:Ref-erso an animalorllower)thatcan be cut inanyverticalplaneoprclducewo mirror ma-ee alves.his hashe advantagethatstimuli canbereceivedqualll,'elltromalldirections nd esponsesmade nall directions.heseaanemonen Fis 2llustratesadialsvrrmetr\'.Triploblastic:This rel-erso ananimal hat hashreebasicgerma1'ersnthe body,thc ectoderm,mesodermndendoderm.Themesodermcandif'ferentiatentoblood.muscleissuesnd skeletalissues. is 3showsasection hroughatriploblasticanimal.of earthwormype.Bilateralsvmmetrv:Thisref-ersoan animalorlower)thatcan onlvbecut downoneverticalaxistoproducewo mirrorimagehalves.Thissymmetrl,allowsdevelopmentf specialisationntoanterior.posterior.dorsal,ventraland ateralDartsf thebodv(Fis3).Coelom: Thisisa body cavity whichdevelopsnsidehe mesodenn.tgivesoomtoenable heorganso move.Acoelomcanbe seen n Fig3.Fig3.Transversesection througha triploblasticcoelomateanimalDichotomouskeysKeysareused brcate-eorisingnddentif.vingrganisms.n a dichotomcluskey,the definedgroupof organismssdivided ntotwo subgroupsn rhebasisof oneeasilyobservedharacteristic.heprocedures repeated itheachofthesubgroups.singaditlerent haracteristicneach ase.ntil allthe typesof organism avebeenseparatednto tlieirown subgroup. achstageof the key musthaveno morehan woalternatives. he keybelowillustratesowthe six insectshownnFig,lmaybe separated.Fig 4. Drawingsillustratingfeaturesof sixtypes of insect.Therearenumerouswaysof doinghe ke,v.The ollowingisan exampleonly.l.insect aspairofwings2. insectas2pairsof wings3. abdomenas4segments4.abdomenas7 segments-5.antennaelubbed6. antcmaenotclubbedl. wingssmallnarea elative obody8.wingsmuch argerhanbodv().abdomen/bodfsthin10abdomen/bodysthickgoto3eoto5SpeciesSpeciesSpeciesgotoTgoto9SpeciesSpeciesSpecies
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ExamHint:*Acommonerrormadebystudents stohavemorethantwoalternatives inoneormoresfepsoftheirkey.Onlytrulydichotomous keysareacceptableto the examiners.Onlya singlecharacteristicshouldbeusedateachstep.PracticeQuestions1. Thetablebelow referso lourof the ive taxonomicinedoms.(a)Selecteaturesiomthe bllowing istandwritehem n theappropriatef-eaturesox onthe table.Some1-eaturesaybe usedmorehanonce.or may notbe relevant.You shouldwritethree eaturesn eachbox.haseukaryoticells,hasprokaryoticells. ascellulosic ell walls.haschitinouscell walls,autotrophic. eterotrophic.onsistsof hyphae,olienunicellularorgroupsof similarcells.alwaysmulticellular. avenervousoordination.(b)Selectorganisms iomthe followinglistand completehe table byplacinghem nthe appropriatexamplesox. Givetwo examples neachox.Green algae, Penicillium.Ferns.Mushrooms,Bacteria.Antoeba,Malarialparasite,Dicotyledons,Mucot',Frog, Moss, Viruses,Tapeworm,Spider.4dorsalventralectodermlateralmesodermendodermcoelomlateralgutKingdomFeaturesExamplesFungiProtoctistaPlantaeAnimalia

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