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Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater Harvesting

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Published by Tutut Hardiyanti

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Published by: Tutut Hardiyanti on Feb 28, 2012
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07/11/2013

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RAIN-WATER HARVESTING
Panen air hujan merupakan suatu metodememanfaatkan air hujan untuk keperluan domestikdan pertanian, cara ini telah banyak diaplikasikandi berbagai penjuru dunia.
Rain Water Harvesting as a method of utilizing rain water for domesticand agricultural use is already widely used throughout the world. It is a methodwhich has been used since ancient times and is increasingly being accepted as a practical method of providing potable water in development projects throughoutthe world. It has wide application also in urban and peri-urban areas where thereliability and quality of piped water is increasingly being questioned. Despitethese facts the percentage of households using rain water harvesting both inurban and rural areas is remarkably low.
DELAPAN PRINSIP KEBERHASILAN PANEN AIR HUJAN:
1. Begin with long and thoughtful observation.Use all your senses to see where the water flows and how. What isworking, what is not? Build on what works.2. Start at the top (highpoint) of your watershed and work your waydown. Water travels downhill, so collect water at your high pointsfor more immediate infiltration and easy gravity-fed distribution.Start at the top where there is less volume and velocity of water.3.Start small and simple. Work at the human scale so you can buildand repair everything. Many small strategies are far more effectivethan one big one when you are trying to infiltrate water into the soil.4. Slow, spread, and infiltrate the flow of water. Rather than havingwater run erosively off the land’s surface, encourage it to stick around, “walk” around, and infiltrate into the soil. Slow it, spread it,sink it.5. Always plan an overflow route, and manage that overflow as aresource. Always have an overflow route for the water in times of extra heavy rains, and where possible, use the overflow as aresource.6.Maximize living and organic groundcover. Create a living sponge sothe harvested water is used to create more resources, while the soil’sability to infiltrate and hold water steadily improves.7. Maximize beneficial relationships and efficiency by “stackingfunctions.” Get your water harvesting strategies to do more than
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hold water. Berms can double as high-and-dry raised paths.Plantings can be placed to cool buildings in summer. Vegetation can be selected to provide food.8. Continually reassess your system: the “feedback loop.”Observe how your work affects the site, beginning again with thefirst principle. Make any needed changes, using the principles toguide you.
These principles are the core of successful water harvesting. They applyequally to the conceptualization, design, and implementation of all water-harvesting landscapes. You must integrate all principles, not just youfavorites, to realize a site’s full potential. Used together, these principlesgreatly enhance success, dramatically reduce mistakes, and enable you to adaptand integrate a range of strategies to meet site needs. While the principlesremain constant, the strategies you use to achieve them will vary with eachunique site.
Rainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater. Rainwater harvesting has been used to providedrinking water , water for livestock , water for irrigationor to refillaquifersin a process called groundwater recharge. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents andlocal institutions, or from specially prepared areas of ground, can make animportant contribution to drinking water. In some cases, rainwater may be theonly available, or economical, water source. Rainwater systems are simple toconstruct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful inmost habitable locations. Roof rainwater is usually of good quality and does notrequire treatment before consumption. Household rainfall catchment systemsare appropriate in areas with an average rainfall greater than 200mm per year,and no other accessible water sources.There are a number of types of systems to harvest rainwater rangingfrom very simple to the complex industrial systems. Generally, rainwater iseither harvested from the ground or from a roof. The rate at which water can becollected from either system is dependent on the plan area of the system, itsefficiency, and the intensity of rainfall. 
Sistem Penangkapan Hujan di Permukaan Lahan
Ground catchments systems channel water from a prepared catchmentarea into storage. Generally they are only considered in areas where rainwater isvery scarce and other sources of water are not available. They are more suitedto small communities than individual families. If properly designed, groundcatchments can collect large quantities of rainwater.
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Sistem Penangkapan di Atap Bangunan
Roof catchment systems channel rainwater that falls onto a roof intostorage via a system of gutters and pipes. The first flush of rainwater after a dryseason should be allowed to run to waste as it will be contaminated with dust, bird droppings etc. Roof gutters should have sufficient incline to avoid standing
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