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Aircraft Design Project 2

Aircraft Design Project 2

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Published by Mahesh J Rao

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Published by: Mahesh J Rao on Feb 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/27/2013

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1
1.
 
Introduction
1.1
 
Overview:
The structural design of an airplane actually begins with the flightenvelope or V-n diagram, which clearly limits the maximum load factors thatthe airplane can withstand at any particular flight velocity. However in normalpractice the airplane might experience loads that are much higher than thedesign loads. Some of the factors that lead to the structural overload of anairplane are high gust velocities, sudden movements of the controls, fatigue loadin some cases, bird strikes or lightning strikes. So to add some inherent abilityto withstand these rare but large loads, a safety factor of 1.5 is provided duringthe structural design.The two major members that need to be considered for the structuraldesign of an airplane are wings and the fuselage. As far as the wing design isconcerned, the most significant load is the bending load. So the primary loadcarrying member in the wing structure is the spar (the front and rear spars)
whose cross section is an ‘I’ section. Apart from th
e spars to take the bendingloads, suitable stringers need to take the shear loads acting on the wings.Unlike the wing, which is subjected to mainly unsymmetrical load, thefuselage is much simpler for structural analysis due to its symmetrical crossingand symmetrical loading. The main load in the case of fuselage is the shear loadbecause the load acting on the wing is transferred to the fuselage skin in theform of shear only. The structural design of both wing and fuselage begin withshear force and bending moment diagrams for the respective members. Themaximum bending stress produced in each of them is checked to be less thanthe yield stress of the material chosen for the respective member.
 
2
1.2
 
Outline:
The Structural design involves:Determination of loads acting on aircraft:
 
V-n diagram for the design study
 
Gust and maneuverability envelopes
 
Schrenk’s Curve
 
 
Critical loading performance and final V-n graph calculationDetermination of loads acting on individual structures
 
Structural design study
 – 
Theory approach
 
Load estimation of wings
 
Load estimation of fuselage.
 
Material Selection for structural members
 
Detailed structural layouts
 
Design of some components of wings, fuselage
1.3
 
Parameters forwarded from ADP
 – 
1
Take off Gross Weight,

 

 
 
 Maximum Velocity,


 

 

 
 Cruise Velocity,


 

 Stall Velocity,


 

 
 
3
Table 1-1: Mass ratio Split up
Components
 
Mass Fraction
 
Crew
 0.00053146
Landing Gear
 0.042516824
Payload
 0.190144687
Fixed Equipment
 0.002262033
Fuselage mass
 0.085033649
Horizontal Stablizer
 0.012597578
Vertical Stabilizer
 0.006298789
Wing Structure
 0.125975776
Fuel
 0.4810995
Power plant
 0.053539705
Total
 1Cruise Altitude = 12 kmThe airfoil used her is NACA 65
3
- 418Density at cruise altitude,


 Cruise C_L @ Cruise altitude,

 


@ 16
˚ aoa
 

 


 
@ 14 ˚ since tail angle is 15.56 ˚
 


 
@ -
14 ˚ aoa
 
 
 


c
r
= 11.593 m

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