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1. How to read these notes
2. Integers
3. Deﬁnitions and proofs in mathematics
4. Division
6. Primes
7. Rational numbers
8. Real numbers
9. Decimal representation of real numbers
11. Propositions
12. Predicates
13. Universally true
14. Logical Connectives
15. Rules of Inference
17. List notation for sets
18. Setbuilder notation
19. Variations on setbuilder notation
20. Sets of real numbers
21. A speciﬁcation for sets
22. The empty set
23. Singleton sets
25. Implication
26. Vacuous truth
27. How implications are worded
28. Modus Ponens
29. Equivalence
30. Statements related to an implication
31. Subsets and inclusion
32. The powerset of a set
33. Union and intersection
34. The universal set and complements
35. Ordered pairs
36. Tuples
37. Cartesian Products
39. Functions
40. The graph of a function
41. Some important types of functions
42. Anonymous notation for functions
43. Predicates determine functions
44. Sets of functions
45. Binary operations
46. Fixes
48. Associativity
49. Commutativity
50. Identities
51. Relations
52. Relations on a single set
53. Relations and functions
54. Operations on relations
55. Reﬂexive relations
56. Symmetric relations
57. Antisymmetric relations
58. Transitive relations
59. Irreﬂexive relations
60. Quotient and remainder
61. Trunc and Floor
62. Unique factorization for integers
63. The GCD
64. Properties of the GCD
65. Euclid’s Algorithm
66. Bases for representing integers
67. Algorithms and bases
68. Computing integers to diﬀerent bases
69. The DeMorgan Laws
70. Propositional forms
70.3 Propositional forms
71. Tautologies
73. Lists of tautologies
74. The tautology theorem
75. Quantiﬁers
76. Variables and quantiﬁers
77. Order of quantiﬁers
78. Negating quantiﬁers
80. Proving implications: the Direct Method
82. Fallacies connected with implication
83. Proving equivalences
84. Multiple equivalences
85. Uniqueness theorems
87. B´ezout’s Lemma
88. A constructive proof of B´ezout’s Lemma
92. Surjectivity
93. Injectivity
94. Bijectivity
95. Permutations
96. Restrictions and extensions
97. Tuples as functions
98. Functional composition
99. Idempotent functions
100. Commutative diagrams
101. Inverses of functions
102. Notation for sums and products
103. Mathematical induction
104. Least counterexamples
105. Recursive deﬁnition of functions
106. Inductive and recursive
108. Functions of several variables
111. Formal languages
112. Families of sets
114. Multiplication of Choices
115. Counting with set operations
116. The Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion
119. The class function
120. The quotient of a function
121. The fundamental bijection theorem
123. The Pigeonhole Principle
124. Recurrence relations in counting
125. The number of subsets of a set
126. Composition of relations
127. Closures
128. Closures as intersections
129. Equivalence relations
131. The kernel equivalence of a function
132. Equivalence relations and partitions
133. Partitions give equivalence relations
134. Orderings
135. Total orderings
136. Preorders
137. Hasse diagrams
138. Lexical ordering
139. Canonical ordering
140. Upper and lower bounds
142. Lattices
143. Algebraic properties of lattices
144. Directed graphs
146. Simple digraphs
147. Isomorphisms
148. The adjacency matrix of a digraph
149. Paths and circuits
151. Directed walks and matrices
152. Undirected graphs
157. Special types of circuits
158. Planar graphs
159. Graph coloring
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Discrete Mathematics

# Discrete Mathematics

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12/28/2012

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