Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Arsenic and Selenium- Contamination in Food Chains, Hazards, Determination

Arsenic and Selenium- Contamination in Food Chains, Hazards, Determination

Ratings: (0)|Views: 48|Likes:
Published by Aman Paul

More info:

Published by: Aman Paul on Feb 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/29/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Arsenic and Selenium- Contamination in Food Chains, Hazards,Determination
Aman Paul¹, Dorcus Masih°, Sachin Verma², Sajan Palanchoke¹, Priyanka Malik³, Dr JustinMasih¹ M.Tech (Food Technology) Scholars, Department of Food Process Engineering, SHIATS(Allahabad)² M.Sc (Dairy Technology) Scholar, Department of Dairy Technology, SHIATS (Allahabad)³ R & D Executive, Field Fresh Foods Limited (Gurgaon)° Assistant Professor, Department of Food Process Engineering, SHIATS (Allahabad)Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, ECC (Allahabad)
Arsenic and Selenium- Availability and Contamination in Food Chains
Arsenic is a naturally occurring dissolved element in ground and surface water throughout theworld. Arsenic and its compound often have garlic like odour, when crushed or whenscratched with hard object. Arsenic compounds can be very toxic and their uses are strictlycontrolled by health and environmental regulations (1). Erosion of arsenic containing surfacerocks probably account for a significant amount of arsenic in water supplies. The other majosources of environmental arsenic are the smelting of non-ferrous metal ores, especiallycopper. Arsenic is an essential nutrient and is a constituent of many foods such as meat, fish, poultry, grains and cereals (2). The concentration of arsenic in plants can vary depending onfactors like the species of plant, the type of arsenic in soil, and the location of a given species.Arsenic can exist in a variety of oxidation states in inorganic and organic forms in manyenvironmental matrices such as natural water and soils (3).Selenium is widely present in nature in relatively small concentrations in rocks, plants, coaland other fossil fuels (4). Selenium is also present in the soil in certain areas of the USA (thedry plains of Dakota, Wyoming and Kansas) and is taken up by vegetation which then becomes poisonous to animals; their meat is rendered unfit for human consumption.Selenium is however, an essential trace element in some animal diets (5). It has bothtoxicological and physiological effects (6,7). The toxicity, availability and environmentalmobility of selenium are very much dependent on its chemical forms (8). Selenium can occur in different oxidation states in organic and inorganic forms. In many environment matrices,example natural water, soil, etc. the predominant oxidation states of selenium are Se (IV) andSe (VI) (9). Selenium is a trace mineral that is essential to good health but required only insmall amounts (10,11). Selenium is incorporated into proteins to make selenoprotiens, whichare important antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant properties of selenoprotiens help to prevent cellular damages from free radicals. Free radicals are natural by-products of oxygenmetabolism that may contribute to development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heartdiseases (12,13). Other selenoprotiens help to regulate thyroid function and play a role in theimmune system (14-16).
 
Hazards from Arsenic and Selenium
In excessive amounts, arsenic causes gastrointestinal damage and cardiac damage. Chronicdoses can cause vascular disorders such as Blackfoot disease. Arsenic and its compounds arereported to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic in nature (2). The most infamous useof arsenic is as a poison. However, arsenic can now be detected during autopsy, so this use of the element has become a legend of the past. These days the most important use of arsenic isin the preservation of wood. Arsenic is also used as a weed killer and rat poison (18).High concentration of selenium causes pulmonary edema, abdominal pain, jaundice, chronicgastrointestinal diseases, hair loss and fatigue in humans (19) and its deficiency causesKeshan and Kaschin Beck diseases in humans, which are frequently reported in China (20). Italso plays a major role in the life cycle of plants (cruceferal family), which absorborganoselenium compounds accumulated in the soils of semiarid areas and may poisonlivestock that graze on them (21). Some industrial and agricultural processes release seleniumas a by-product and selenium from such sources has caused environmental disaster (22).Therefore, understanding the acute toxicity of both metals which are in fewer considerations,it becomes really important for us to develop new and rapid techniques to determine theamounts of arsenic and selenium present in the foods we eat.
Materials and Methods
 
1.
 
ArsenicApparatus
- A Systronics 2201 UV-Visible Double Beam Spectrophotometer with 1 cmquartz cell and a pH meter are required.
eagents and Solutions-
All chemicals are of analytical reagent grade or chemically puregrade and distilled water is used throughout the study. Arsenic (III) stock solution (1000µgm/l) is prepared by dissolving 0.1734 g of NaAsO
2
in 100 ml of water. Working standardis prepared by appropriate dilution of stock. Toluidine blue (0.01 %), hydrochloric acid (1M), potassium iodate (2 %) HNO
3
, perchloric acid and sodium acetate (1 M) are used.
Methodology
-A sample of plant material (grass±5g) is digested with 10 ml of HNO
3
for about 25 minutes. After cooling, 1 ml of perchloric acid is added and heating is continued for about another 10 minutes. Arsenic (V) if any was reduced to As (III) by the processdescribed. The solution was transferred to a 25 mL volumetric flask and diluted to volumewith water. Aliquots of sample solution containing 1.2-10.5 µgm/l of arsenic (III)] aretransferred in to a series of 10 ml calibrated flasks. Potassium iodate (2 %, 1 ml), thenhydrochloric acid (1 M, 1 ml) is added and mixture was gently shaken until the appearance of yellow colour indicating the liberation of iodine. This is followed by addition of toluidine blue (0.01 %, 0.5 ml) and 2 ml of sodium acetate solution. The solution is kept for 2 minutesand made up to the mark with distilled water. The absorbance is measured at 628 nm againstthe corresponding reagent blank. Reagent blank is prepared by replacing the analyte (arsenic)solution with distilled water. The absorbance corresponding to the bleached colour, which inturn corresponds to the analyte (arsenic) concentration, is obtained by subtracting theabsorbance of the blank solution from that of the test solution. The amount of the arsenic present in the volume taken is computed from the calibration graph (23).
 
2
.
 
SeleniumApparatus-
A Systronics 2201 UV-Visible Double Beam Spectrophotometer with 1 cmquartz cell and a pH meter are required.
eagents and Solutions-
All chemicals are of analytical reagent grade or chemically puregrade and double distilled water is used throughout the study. A standard stock solution of selenium is prepared by dissolving 1.912 g of NaHSeO
3
in 1000 ml of water and standardized by the dithiozone method (42). Toluidine blue solution (0.02%), potassium iodide (2%),hydrochloric acid (1M), EDTA acetate buffer solution (pH=4) are used.
Methodology
- A known weight (50.0 g) of a sludge sample was placed in a 50 ml beaker andextracted 4 times with a 5 ml portion of concentrated HCl. The extract was boiled for 10minutes to convert any Se (VI) present in the soil to Se (IV) cooled and neutralized (pH 7)with 10% NaOH. A volume of 5 mL of 5 % EDTA solution was added and the contents weremade up to 25 ml with water. Aliquots of sample solution containing 1.0±16.0 µgm/l] of selenium solution are transferred into a series of 10 ml calibrated flasks. A volume of 1 ml of 2 % potassium iodide solution is added followed by 1 ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid and themixture was gently shaken until the appearance of yellow colour, indicating the liberation of iodine. A 0.5 ml of 0.02 % toluidine blue solution is then added to it followed by the additionof 2 ml of acetate buffer solution of pH=4 and the reaction mixture shaken for 2 minutes. Thecontents are diluted to 10 ml with distilled water and mixed well. The absorbance of theresulting solutions is measured at 628 nm against the corresponding reagent blank. A reagent blank is prepared by replacing the analyte (selenium) solution with distilled water. Theabsorbance corresponding to the bleached colour which in turn corresponds to the analyte(selenium) concentration is obtained by subtracting the absorbance of the blank solution fromthat of test solution. The amount of the selenium present in the volume taken was computedfrom the calibration graph. (24)
Conclusion
Arsenic is a naturally occurring dissolved element in ground and surface water throughout theworld. Selenium is widely present in nature in relatively small concentrations in rocks, plants,coal and other fossil fuels. Both arsenic and selenium can be very hazardous substanceswhen consumed in overdoses. They can be detected in food by simple UV-Visspectrophotometer based technique. UV-Vis spectrophotometer enables quick detection of the arsenic and selenium in food stuff.
eferences
1.
 
J. C. Deilar, H. J. Emeleus, R. Nyholm and A. F. T. Dickenson,
Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry
,
2
 
(1975) 547.
 
2.
 
³
ater Quality and Treatment 
´
, American Water Work Association, (1992) 83.
 
3.
 
 N. I. Sax,
³
Cancer Causing Chemicals
´
, Van Nostrand Reinholds, New York, (1981)290

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->