CHAPTER 4Back-up (O/C & E/F) Relay Settings
:-(i)Normal Inverse (10T=3sec) IDMT curve characteristics should begenerally used for adopting the settings.(ii)Where gradation with the upstream and downstream relays is critical, veryinverse or extremely inverse characteristics may be used to achievegradation in specific cases. Such relays should then be provided withidentifying tags.(iii)To achieve proper gradation, the current seen by the relay should generally be less than 20 times the relay rated current. Where fault contribution isvery high, it can be brought down to desired value by adopting followingsteps(a)Increase Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)(Max. recommended for O/C: 100% & for E/F: 30%)(b)Increase CT ratio wherever possible.(iv)The gradation between two sequential stage relays is to be adapted to 200ms.(v)In case of numerical relays a separate high speed latch type trip relayshould be adopted.4.2
High Set Settings
:-(i)All the high set relays should have a time grading facility for high-setelement. If such facility is not available a separate timer should be provided with a setting range from 0 to 1 Sec in steps of 50 ms minimum.(ii)All the radial outgoing feeders, which are not provided with distance protection schemes, should be provided with high-set relays for fastclearance of close-up faults.(iii)In case of feeders where distance protection is provided, the high setelement in backup protection should not be used.(iv)80% of the corresponding bus fault MVA may be considered for adoptingthe settings of high set relays.
Separate cases to be discussed. Logic for adopting fault MVA in each case to be explained.)(v)All the radial HV O/G feeders connected to the bus should have the samehigh set setting.(vi)Fault data from the Numerical relay, if provided, may be used toadvantage for further revision of the high set setting.4.3
EHV feeders (220 KV & below)