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01/31/2013

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CORPORATE TRAINING MANUAL
MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS AND FORMULAS
Parts of a formula
Functions: The PI() function returns the value of pi: 3.142...References (or names): A2 returns the value in cell A2.Constants: Numbers or text values entered directly into a formula, such as 2.Operators: The ^ (caret) operator raises a number to a power, and the * (asterisk) operatormultiplies.
Functions are predefined formulas that perform calculations by using specific values, calledarguments, in a particular order, or structure. Functions can be used to perform simple orcomplex calculations. For example, the ROUND function rounds off a number in cell A10.
Structure of a function
Structure. The structure of a function begins with an equal sign (=), followed by thefunction name, an opening parenthesis, the arguments for the function separated bycommas, and a closing parenthesis.Function name. For a list of available functions, click a cell and press SHIFT+F3.Arguments. Arguments can be numbers, text, logical values such as TRUE or FALSE,arrays (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate ona group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. An array range shares a common formula; an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.), errorvalues such as #N/A, orcell references (cell reference: The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. For example, the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3.). The argument you designate must produce avalid value for that argument. Arguments can also beconstants, formulas, or otherfunctions.
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CORPORATE TRAINING MANUAL
Argument tooltip. A tooltip with the syntax and arguments appears as you type the function.For example, type =ROUND( and the tooltip appears. Tooltips only appear for built-infunctions.
Entering formulas
When you create a formula that contains a function, the
InsertFunction
dialog box helps you enter worksheet functions. As you enter a function into theformula, the
Insert Function
dialog box displays the name of the function, each of itsarguments, a description of the function and each argument, the current result of thefunction, and the current result of the entire formula.
In certain cases, you may need to use a function as one of thearguments (argument: Thevalues that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers, text, cell references, and names.)of another function. For example, thefollowing formula uses a nested AVERAGE function and compares the result with the value50.
Valid returns
When a nested function is used as an argument, it must return the sametype of value that the argument uses. For example, if the argument returns a TRUE orFALSE value, then the nested function must return a TRUE or FALSE. If it doesn't, MicrosoftExcel displays a #VALUE! error value.
Nesting level limits
A formula can contain up to seven levels of nested functions. WhenFunction B is used as an argument in Function A, Function B is a second-level function. Forinstance, the AVERAGE function and the SUM function are both second-level functionsbecause they are arguments of the IF function. A function nested within the AVERAGEfunction would be a third-level function, and so on.
A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and tells Microsoft Excelwhere to look for the values or data you want to use in a formula. With references, you canuse data contained in different parts of a worksheet in one formula or use the value fromone cell in several formulas. You can also refer to cells on other sheets in the sameworkbook, and to other workbooks. References to cells in other workbooks are called links.
By default, Excel uses the A1 reference style, which refers to columns with letters (Athrough IV, for a total of 256 columns) and refers to rows with numbers (1 through 65536).These letters and numbers are called row and column headings. To refer to a cell, enter thecolumn letter followed by the row number. For example, B2 refers to the cell at theintersection of column B and row 2.
To refer toUse
The cell in column A and row 10A10The range of cells in column A and rows 10 through 20A10:A20The range of cells in row 15 and columns B through EB15:E15All cells in row 55:5All cells in rows 5 through 105:10All cells in column HH:H
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CORPORATE TRAINING MANUAL
All cells in columns H through JH:JThe range of cells in columns A through E and rows 10 through 20A10:E20
Reference to another worksheet
In the following example, the AVERAGE worksheetfunction calculates the average value for the range B1:B10 on the worksheet namedMarketing in the same workbook.Link to another worksheet in the same workbookNote that the name of the worksheet and an exclamation point (!) precede the rangereference.
A relative cell reference in a formula, such as A1, is based on therelative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell the reference refers to. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes, the reference is changed. If youcopy the formula across rows or down columns, the reference automatically adjusts. Bydefault, new formulas use relative references. For example, if you copy a relative referencein cell B2 to cell B3, it automatically adjusts from =A1 to =A2.
Copied formula with relative referenceAbsolute references
An absolute cell reference in a formula, such as \$A\$1, always referto a cell in a specific location. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes,the absolute reference remains the same. If you copy the formula across rows or downcolumns, the absolute reference does not adjust. By default, new formulas use relativereferences, and you need to switch them to absolute references. For example, if you copy aabsolute reference in cell B2 to cell B3, it stays the same in both cells =\$A\$1.
Copied formula with absolute referenceMixed references
A mixed reference has either an absolute column and relative row, orabsolute row and relative column. An absolute column reference takes the form \$A1, \$B1,and so on. An absolute row reference takes the form A\$1, B\$1, and so on. If the position of the cell that contains the formula changes, the relative reference is changed, and theabsolute reference does not change. If you copy the formula across rows or down columns,the relative reference automatically adjusts, and the absolute reference does not adjust. Forexample, if you copy a mixed reference from cell A2 to B3, it adjusts from =A\$1 to =B\$1.Copied formula with mixed reference
If you want to analyze data in the same cell or range of cells on multiple worksheets withinthe workbook, use a 3-D reference. A 3-D reference includes the cell or range reference,preceded by a range of worksheet names. Excel uses any worksheets stored between thestarting and ending names of the reference. For example, =SUM(Sheet2:Sheet13!B5) addsall the values contained in cell B5 on all the worksheets between and including Sheet 2 andSheet 13.
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