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Getting Started
1.1 Starting up the Haskell Interpreter
1.2. IMPLEMENTINGAPRIME NUMBER TEST 3
1.2 Implementing a Prime Number Test
1.7 The Prime Factorization Algorithm
1.8 The map and filter Functions
1.9 Haskell Equations and Equational Reasoning
2.1 Logical Connectives and their Meanings
2.2 Logical Validity and Related Notions
2.3 Making Symbolic Form Explicit
2.4 Lambda Abstraction
2.5 Deﬁnitions and Implementations
2.6. ABSTRACT FORMULAS AND CONCRETESTRUCTURES 61
2.6 Abstract Formulas and Concrete Structures
2.7 Logical Handling of the Quantiﬁers
2.8 Quantiﬁers as Procedures
The Use of Logic: Proof
3.1 Proof Style
3.2 Proof Recipes
3.3 Rules for the Connectives
3.4 Rules for the Quantiﬁers
3.5 Summary of the Proof Recipes
3.6 Some Strategic Guidelines
3.7 Reasoning and Computation with Primes
Sets, Types and Lists
4.2 Paradoxes, Types and Type Classes
4.3 Special Sets
4.4 Algebra of Sets
4.6 Lists and List Operations
4.7 List Comprehension and Database Query
4.8 Using Lists to Represent Sets
4.9 A Data Type for Sets
Relations
5.1 The Notion of a Relation
5.2 Properties of Relations
5.3 Implementing Relations as Sets of Pairs
5.4 Implementing Relations as Characteristic Func- tions
5.5 Equivalence Relations
5.6 Equivalence Classes and Partitions
5.7 Integer Partitions
Functions
6.1 Basic Notions
6.2 Surjections, Injections, Bijections
6.3 Function Composition
6.4 Inverse Function
6.5 Partial Functions
6.6 Functions as Partitions
6.7 Products
6.8 Congruences
Induction and Recursion
7.1 Mathematical Induction
7.2 Recursion over the Natural Numbers
7.3 The Nature of Recursive Deﬁnitions
7.4 Induction and Recursion over Trees
7.5 Induction and Recursion over Lists
7.6 Some Variations on the Tower of Hanoi
7.7 Induction andRecursion overOther Data Struc- tures
Working with Numbers
8.1 A Module for Natural Numbers
8.2 GCD and the Fundamental Theorem of Arith- metic
8.3 Integers
8.4 Implementing Integer Arithmetic
8.5 Rational Numbers
8.6 Implementing Rational Arithmetic
8.7 Irrational Numbers
8.8 The Mechanic’s Rule
8.10 Complex Numbers
Polynomials
9.1 Difference Analysis of Polynomial Sequences
9.2 Gaussian Elimination
9.3 Polynomials and the Binomial Theorem
9.4 Polynomials for Combinatorial Reasoning
Corecursion
10.1 Corecursive Deﬁnitions
10.2 Processes and Labeled Transition Systems
10.3 Proof by Approximation
10.4 Proof by Coinduction
10.5 Power Series and Generating Functions
10.6 Exponential Generating Functions
Finite and Inﬁnite Sets
11.1 More on Mathematical Induction
11.2 Equipollence
11.3 Inﬁnite Sets
11.4 Cantor’s World Implemented
11.5 *Cardinal Numbers
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