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Media Platforms Impact Technology MM29 Sept 09

Media Platforms Impact Technology MM29 Sept 09

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Published by Julie Thrasher
Media Platforms Impact Technology MM29 Sept 09
Media Platforms Impact Technology MM29 Sept 09

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Published by: Julie Thrasher on Mar 01, 2012
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MM10
 
MediaMagazine
| September 2009 | english and media centre
Conventionally, media texts have beenconsidered as standalone products. This approachhas become less valid in the past few years asmedia producers and media audiences have takenadvantage of new technologies to help promotemedia products (producers) or extend their usesand gratifications of a text (audiences). This changein approach to media texts has been developingslowly over several decades and the rise in
multi-platform access
to media texts is an importantaspect of our studies.At the heart of multi-platform media are
changesand developments in technology.
 As technologieschange they offer different ways for audiences toaccess texts; and so institutions change the waythey make and promote their products.Consider the cinematic film. At one point, theonly way to see a film was to go to the cinema.Films were released and shown in cinemas until theaudience numbers declined and from that pointon, it was virtually impossible to access the filmagain. As television became a more widespreadtechnology, deals were made whereby filmscould be shown on TV. There was usually a longwait for films to make it to television and withparticularly popular films this move from oneplatform to another was often a very big event.During the 1970s and into the 1980s, the BBC andITV would compete to show the biggest and mostpopular film on Christmas day. This was oftenthe first opportunity for some audiences to view‘blockbuster’ films, if they had been too young atthe time of cinema release or had simply missed thefilm at the cinema.In the 1980s two technologies changedaudiences’ ability to access films: video and satellitetelevision.
Video
Video allowed audiences to rent feature filmsto watch whenever was convenient and VCRsprovided an opportunity to tape and keep filmsshown on TV (and TV programmes too).At first film companies were concerned videowould have a negative impact on their business,reducing cinema attendance; so initially onlyold, low budget or minority interest films werereleased on this format. This led to a glut of cheaphorrors and a moral panic about ‘video nasties’as video was, at first, outside any certification orlegislation.As the technology became more widespreadHollywood realised its financial potential.Blockbuster films were made available to rentand, later, to buy – often with additional footagesuch as a ‘making of’ documentary to encouragepeople to purchase the film rather than wait andtape it from the TV.Video made television fiction marketable.From the mid-90s, some TV companies realisedthat cult programmes (such as
Star Trek 
and
The X-Files
) had an audience that would be preparedto pay to own their favourite series and video boxsets were introduced.
Satellite (and later, cable) television
Satellite television charged viewers a fee andthus could negotiate deals with film companieswhich allowed them to show feature filmssooner than on terrestrial TV and so filmsmoved from cinema to TV more quickly.As there is more ‘space’ on non-terrestrialtelevision, so more channels could be madeavailable – some of which are dedicated solelyto broadcasting films.
More recent developments
DVD
DVD technology again broadened the marketfor home purchases. Again, in order to competewith video, DVDs offered a host of ‘extras’ –behind the scenes footage, commentaries,
the impact of technology
Mediaplatforms
Media Products are now accessedthrough a network of platforms andsources.
Steph Hendry
explainshow new technologies have changedthe ways we consume and studymedia texts.
 
MM
english and media centre | September 2009 |
MediaMagazine
11
documentaries and alternative edits/endings– all attempting to make audiences see the costof the product as worthwhile.TV companies too saw the potential in DVDand more mainstream television products weremade available for rental or purchase ratherthan just cult programming.The rise in the popularity of DVD has had amajor impact on the entertainment industry:– films can make more money on DVD releasethan in cinemas; the format is quicklybecoming very important.– TV programmes released on DVD make vastprofits for TV companies, so much so that theformat is now seen to influence
the type of programmes made
and the way they aremade. For example, a series such as
Lost 
or
 24
 is particularly suited to DVD as their complex,ongoing narratives can be difficult to keep upwith on a regular weekly basis. DVD on theother hand allows audiences to watch severalepisodes at once and view a whole seriesrelatively quickly.
 24
 was seen as a failure after its first seasonas it did not attract a large enough audienceon TV to justify its enormous productioncosts. Fox decided not to renew it for a secondseason and in an attempt to cash in on itscult audience, released the box set on DVDwithin a few months of the season finishingon TV (before this, there was a very long gapbetween broadcast and DVD release to allowfor the sale of repeats). The DVDs sold far morethan Fox expected and made enough moneyfor them to agree to a second season (season 7is due to air early 09 and a feature film of 
 24
iscurrently in production).As with video, the technology has developed soaudiences are able to record DVDs at home andnew formats are currently being launched (Blu-Ray and HD DVD). Home ‘taping’ is also beingsupplemented by Hard Drive Recorders andservices such as Sky+.
The internet
The rise in mainstream access to the internetand changes in e-technology is dramaticallyaltering the media landscape.One of the first films to use internettechnology to promote itself before its cinemarelease was
The Blair Witch Project  
(1999).
Internet-chatter 
was encouraged throughthe creation of websites and email marketingwhich implied the film was not fictional at alland word-of-mouth communication spreadquickly on the web generating an interest inthe film (
viral marketing
). As an independentproduction,
Blair Witch
had a very limitedpromotions budget and using the internetkept costs down. This culminated in the filmbeing one of the most profitable films in filmhistory – it cost only $60,000 to make butmade $30m in its opening weekend in theStates alone.Films and television programmes are promotedon the internet in increasingly elaborate ways.
Viral marketing
is now a crucial aspect of 

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