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Sequences and Series–First View

Sequences and Series–First View

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Chapter 4Sequences and Series
–First View
Recall that, for any set
A
, a sequence of elements of 
A
is a function
:
M
A
.Rather than using the notation
n
for the elements that have been selected from
 A
, sincethedomain is always thenatural numbers, weusethenotational convention
a
n
n
and denote sequences in any of the following forms:
a
n
*
n
1
a
n
n
+
M
or a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4

This is the only time that we use the set bracket notation
in a different con
-text. The distinction is made in the way that the indexing is communicated . For
a
n
:
, the
a
n
*
n
1
is the constant sequence that “lists the term
:
in
¿
nitely often,”
::::
while
a
n
:
n
+
M
is the set consisting of one element
:
. (When youread the last sentence, you should have come up with some version of “For ‘
a
sub
n
’ equal to
:
, the sequence of ‘
a
sub
n
’ for
n
going from one to in
¿
nity is theconstant sequence that “lists the term
:
in
¿
nitely often,”
:::
while the setconsisting of ‘
a
sub
n
’ for
n
in the set of positive integers is the set consisting of one element
:
i.e., the point is that you should not have skipped over the
a
n
*
n
1
and
a
n
:
n
+
M
.) Most of your previous experience with sequences has been withsequences of real numbers, like1
1
2
3
5
8
13
21
34
55

,...
|
3
n
1
}
*
n
1
|
n
2
3
n
5
n
47
}
*
n
1
|
n
3
1
n
3
1
1
n
}
*
n
1
an
|
log
nn
sin
r
n
H
8
s}
*
n
1
.In this chapter, most of our sequences will be of elements in Euclidean
n
-space. InMAT127B, our second view will focus on sequence of functions.123
 
124
CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND SERIES
 –FIRST VIEW 
As children, our
¿
rst exposure to sequences was made in an effort to teach us tolook for patterns or to develop an appreciation for patterns that occur naturally.
Excursion 4.0.1
For each of the following,
¿
nd a description for the general termas a function of n
+
M
that 
¿
ts the terms that are given.1.
25
47
89
1611
3213
6415

2.
1
35
9
79
81
1113
729

***
An equation that works for(1) is
2
n
2
n
3
1
while(2)needs a different for
-mulafortheoddtermsandtheeventerms
onepairthatworksis
2
n
1
2
n
1
1
for
n
even and 3
n
1
when
n
is odd.
**
*As part of the bigger picture, pattern recognition is important in areas of math-ematics or the mathematical sciences that generate and study models of variousphenomena. Of course, the models are of value when they allow for analysis and/ormaking projections. In this chapter, we seek to build a deeper mathematical under-standing of sequences and series
primary attention is on properties associated withconvergence. After preliminary work with sequences in arbitrary metric spaces, wewill restrict our attention to sequences of real and complex numbers.
4.1 Sequences and Subsequences in Metric Spaces
If you recall the de
¿
nition of convergence from your frosh calculus course, youmight notice that the de
¿
nition of a limit of a sequence of points in a metric spacemerely replaces the role formerly played by absolute value with its generalization,distance.
 
4.1. SEQUENCES AND SUBSEQUENCES IN METRIC SPACES
125
De
¿
nition 4.1.1
Let 
 p
n
*
n
1
denoteasequenceofelementsofametricspace
S
and p
0
be an element of S. The
limit of 
 p
n
*
n
1
is p
0
as n tends to (goes to or ap
- proaches) in
  ¿
nity if and only if 
1
d
+
U
F
0
"
2
 M 

 M 
+
M
F
1
n
n
"
 p
n
p
0

e
We write either p
n
p
0
or 
lim
n
*
 p
n
p
0
.
Remark 4.1.2
Thedescription M 

indicatesthat“limitofsequenceproofs”require justi
  ¿
cation or speci
  ¿
cation of a means of prescribing how to
¿
nd an M that “will work” corresponding to each
0
. A function that gives us a nice way tospecify M 
’s is de
  ¿
ned by
L
 x
M
inf 
 j
+
]
:
x
n
j
and is sometimes referred to as the
 ceiling function
. Note, for example, that 
z
12
{
1
 ,
L
2
2
M 
2
 , and 
L
5
M 
5
. Compare this to the greatest integer function, whichis sometimes referred to as the
À 
 oor function
.
Example 4.1.3
The sequence
|
2
n
}
*
n
1
has the limit 
0
in
U
. We can take M 
1
2
 , M 
t
1100
u
200
 , and M 
t
3350
u
z
7003
{
234
. Of course, three examplesdoes not a proof make. In general, for 
0
 , let M 
z
2
{
. Then n
implies that n
z
2
{
o
2
0
which, by Proposition 1.2.9 (#7) and (#5), implies that 
1
n
2
and 
2
n
nnnn
2
n
nnnn
.
Using the de
¿
nition to prove that the limit of a sequence is some point in themetric space is an example of where our scratch work towards
¿
nding a proof might

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