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NORMED VECTOR SPACES

# NORMED VECTOR SPACES

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LINEAR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
W W L CHEN
c
W W L Chen, 2001, 2008.This chapter is available free to all individuals, on the understanding that it is not to be used for ﬁnancial gain,and may be downloaded and/or photocopied, with or without permission from the author.However, this document may not be kept on any information storage and retrieval system without permissionfrom the author, unless such system is not accessible to any individuals other than its owners.
Chapter 3
NORMED VECTOR SPACES
3.1. Review of Vector Spaces
In this section, we shall review some of the ideas we have encountered in linear algebra concerning realvector spaces and extend them to complex vector spaces. Throughout,
F
denotes either the set
R
of allreal numbers or the set
C
of all complex numbers.The conﬁdent reader may choose to skip this part, while any reader who feels a little uncomfortablewith the treatment here is advised to revisit appropriate material for the details.A vector space over
F
is a set
, together with vector addition and scalar multiplication, and satisfyingthe following conditions:(VA1) For every
x
,
y
, we have
x
+
y
.(VA2) For every
x
,
y
,
z
, we have
x
+ (
y
+
z
) = (
x
+
y
) +
z
.(VA3) There exists an element
0
such that for every
x
, we have
x
+
0
=
0
+
x
=
x
.(VA4) For every
x
, there exists
x
such that
x
+ (
x
) =
0
.(VA5) For every
x
,
y
, we have
x
+
y
=
y
+
x
.(SM1) For every
c
F
and
x
, we have
c
x
.(SM2) For every
c
F
and
x
,
y
, we have
c
(
x
+
y
) =
c
x
+
c
y
.(SM3) For every
a,b
F
and
x
, we have (
a
+
b
)
x
=
a
x
+
b
x
.(SM4) For every
a,b
F
and
x
, we have (
ab
)
x
=
a
(
b
x
).(SM5) For every
x
, we have 1
x
=
x
.
Remark.
We shall frequently omit reference to vector addition and scalar multiplication, and simplyrefer to
as a vector space over
F
. Furthermore, if
F
=
R
, then we say that
is a real vector space;whereas if
F
=
C
, then we say that
is a complex vector space.Suppose that
is a vector space over
F
, and that
is a non-empty subset of
. Then we saythat
is a linear subspace of
if it forms a vector space over
F
under the vector addition and scalar
Chapter 3 : Normed Vector Spaces
page 1 of 14

Linear Functional Analysis
c
W W L Chen, 2001, 2008
multiplication deﬁned for
. It is easy to see that
is a linear subspace of
if
x
+
y
and
c
x
for every
x
,
y
and
c
F
.Suppose that
is a vector space over
F
. By a linear combination of the vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
, wemean an expression of the type
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, where
c
1
,...,c
r
F
. The setspan
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
=
{
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
:
c
1
,...,c
r
F
}
is called the linear span of the vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
, and is a linear subspace of
.The vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
are linearly independent over
F
if the only solution of the equation
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
=
0
in
c
1
,...,c
r
F
is given by
c
1
=
...
=
c
r
= 0. The set
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
} ⊆
formsa basis for
if
v
1
,...,
v
r
are linearly independent over
F
and span
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
=
. In this case,every element
x
can be expressed uniquely in the form
x
=
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, where
c
1
,...,c
r
F
.A vector space
over
F
is said to be ﬁnite dimensional if it has a basis containing only ﬁnitely manyelements. In this case, any two bases for
have the same number of elements. This number is called thedimension of
, and denoted by dim
. Indeed, any ﬁnite set of linearly independent vectors in
canbe expanded, if necessary, to a basis for
. Furthermore, any set of dim
linearly independent vectorsin
is a basis for
.A vector space
over
F
is said to be inﬁnite dimensional if it does not have a basis containing onlyﬁnitely many elements.
3.2. Norm in a Vector Space
In this section, we study the problem of endowing a vector space with a norm which gives a notion of length to the vectors.
Definition.
A normed vector space is a vector space
over
F
, together with a real valued function
·
:
R
, called a norm, and satisfying the following conditions:(NS1) For every
x
, we have
x
 ≥
0.(NS2) For every
x
, we have
x
= 0 if and only if
x
=
0
.(NS3) For every
x
and every
c
F
, we have
c
x
=
|
c
|
x
.(NS4) (TRIANGLE INEQUALITY) For every
x
,
y
, we have
x
+
y
 ≤
x
+
y
.
Remark.
The condition (NS2) above is in fact superﬂuous. It follows immediately from condition (NS3)by taking
c
= 0. We have included it here for comparison with the properties of metrics which we shalldiscuss later.
Example 3.2.1.
Suppose that
r
N
. Consider the real euclidean vector space
R
r
. For every vector
x
= (
x
1
,...,x
r
)
R
r
, let
x
=
r
i
=1
|
x
i
|
2
1
/
2
.
It can be shown that conditions (NS1)–(NS4) are satisﬁed. The function
·
:
R
r
R
is known as theeuclidean norm or usual norm in
R
r
. We do not include the details here, in view of our next example.
Example 3.2.2.
Suppose that
is a ﬁnite dimensional vector space over
F
, with basis
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
.For every vector
x
, there exist unique
c
1
,...,c
r
F
such that
x
=
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, and let
x
=
r
i
=1
|
c
i
|
2
1
/
2
.
Chapter 3 : Normed Vector Spaces
page 2 of 14

Linear Functional Analysis
c
W W L Chen, 2001, 2008
It is not diﬃcult to check conditions (NS1)–(NS3). To check condition (NS4), let
y
=
a
1
v
1
+
...
+
a
r
v
r
be another vector in
. Then
x
+
y
2
=
r
i
=1
|
c
i
+
a
i
|
2
=
r
i
=1
(
c
i
+
a
i
)(
c
i
+
a
i
) =
r
i
=1
(
c
i
c
i
+
c
i
a
i
+
a
i
c
i
+
a
i
a
i
)
r
i
=1
|
c
i
|
2
+ 2
r
i
=1
|
c
i
||
a
i
|
+
r
i
=1
|
a
i
|
2
=
x
2
+ 2
r
i
=1
|
c
i
||
a
i
|
+
y
2
.
By the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality
r
i
=1
|
c
i
||
a
i
| ≤
r
i
=1
|
c
i
|
2
1
/
2
r
i
=1
|
a
i
|
2
1
/
2
=
x

y
,
we conclude that
x
+
y
2
x
2
+ 2
x

y
+
y
2
= (
x
+
y
)
2
.
Condition (NS4) now follows on taking square roots.
Example 3.2.3.
Consider the set
of all bounded inﬁnite sequences
x
= (
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
,...
) of complexnumbers. It is not diﬃcult to show that
is a complex vector space, with vector addition
x
+
y
andscalar multiplication
c
x
deﬁned respectively by
x
+
y
= (
x
1
+
y
1
,x
2
+
y
2
,x
3
+
y
3
,...
) and
c
x
= (
cx
1
,cx
2
,cx
3
,...
)
.
For every
x
= (
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
,...
)
, let
x
= sup
i
N
|
x
i
|
.
It is not diﬃcult to check conditions (NS1)–(NS3). To check condition (NS4), note that
x
+
y
= sup
i
N
|
x
i
+
y
i
| ≤
sup
i
N
(
|
x
i
|
+
|
y
i
|
)
sup
i
N
|
x
i
|
+ sup
i
N
|
y
i
|
=
x
+
y
.
The function
·
:
R
is called the supremum norm or usual norm in
.
Example 3.2.4.
Suppose that
a,b
R
and
a < b
. Consider the set
[
a,b
] of all continuous complexvalued functions on [
a,b
]. It is not diﬃcult to show that
[
a,b
] is a complex vector space, with vectoraddition
+
g
and scalar multiplication
cf
deﬁned respectively by(
+
g
)(
t
) =
(
t
) +
g
(
t
) and (
cf
)(
t
) =
cf
(
t
) for every
t
[
a,b
]
.
For every function
[
a,b
], let
= sup
t
[
a,b
]
|
(
t
)
|
.
It is not diﬃcult to check conditions (NS1)–(NS3). To check condition (NS4), note that
+
g
= sup
t
[
a,b
]
|
(
t
) +
g
(
t
)
| ≤
sup
t
[
a,b
]
(
|
(
t
)
|
+
|
g
(
t
)
|
)
sup
t
[
a,b
]
|
(
t
)
|
+ sup
t
[
a,b
]
|
g
(
t
)
|
=
+
g
.
The function
·
:
[
a,b
]
R
is called the supremum norm in
[
a,b
].
Chapter 3 : Normed Vector Spaces
page 3 of 14