Linear Functional Analysis
c
W W L Chen, 2001, 2008
multiplication deﬁned for
V
. It is easy to see that
W
is a linear subspace of
V
if
x
+
y
∈
W
and
c
x
∈
W
for every
x
,
y
∈
W
and
c
∈
F
.Suppose that
V
is a vector space over
F
. By a linear combination of the vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
∈
V
, wemean an expression of the type
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, where
c
1
,...,c
r
∈
F
. The setspan
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
=
{
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
:
c
1
,...,c
r
∈
F
}
is called the linear span of the vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
, and is a linear subspace of
V
.The vectors
v
1
,...,
v
r
∈
V
are linearly independent over
F
if the only solution of the equation
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
=
0
in
c
1
,...,c
r
∈
F
is given by
c
1
=
...
=
c
r
= 0. The set
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
} ⊆
V
formsa basis for
V
if
v
1
,...,
v
r
∈
V
are linearly independent over
F
and span
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
=
V
. In this case,every element
x
∈
V
can be expressed uniquely in the form
x
=
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, where
c
1
,...,c
r
∈
F
.A vector space
V
over
F
is said to be ﬁnite dimensional if it has a basis containing only ﬁnitely manyelements. In this case, any two bases for
V
have the same number of elements. This number is called thedimension of
V
, and denoted by dim
V
. Indeed, any ﬁnite set of linearly independent vectors in
V
canbe expanded, if necessary, to a basis for
V
. Furthermore, any set of dim
V
linearly independent vectorsin
V
is a basis for
V
.A vector space
V
over
F
is said to be inﬁnite dimensional if it does not have a basis containing onlyﬁnitely many elements.
3.2. Norm in a Vector Space
In this section, we study the problem of endowing a vector space with a norm which gives a notion of length to the vectors.
Definition.
A normed vector space is a vector space
V
over
F
, together with a real valued function
·
:
V
→
R
, called a norm, and satisfying the following conditions:(NS1) For every
x
∈
V
, we have
x
≥
0.(NS2) For every
x
∈
V
, we have
x
= 0 if and only if
x
=
0
.(NS3) For every
x
∈
V
and every
c
∈
F
, we have
c
x
=

c

x
.(NS4) (TRIANGLE INEQUALITY) For every
x
,
y
∈
V
, we have
x
+
y
≤
x
+
y
.
Remark.
The condition (NS2) above is in fact superﬂuous. It follows immediately from condition (NS3)by taking
c
= 0. We have included it here for comparison with the properties of metrics which we shalldiscuss later.
Example 3.2.1.
Suppose that
r
∈
N
. Consider the real euclidean vector space
R
r
. For every vector
x
= (
x
1
,...,x
r
)
∈
R
r
, let
x
=
r
i
=1

x
i

2
1
/
2
.
It can be shown that conditions (NS1)–(NS4) are satisﬁed. The function
·
:
R
r
→
R
is known as theeuclidean norm or usual norm in
R
r
. We do not include the details here, in view of our next example.
Example 3.2.2.
Suppose that
V
is a ﬁnite dimensional vector space over
F
, with basis
{
v
1
,...,
v
r
}
.For every vector
x
∈
V
, there exist unique
c
1
,...,c
r
∈
F
such that
x
=
c
1
v
1
+
...
+
c
r
v
r
, and let
x
=
r
i
=1

c
i

2
1
/
2
.
Chapter 3 : Normed Vector Spaces
page 2 of 14