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Introduction to Analytic Number TheoryMath 531 Lecture Notes, Fall 2005
A.J. HildebrandDepartment of MathematicsUniversity of Illinois
http://www.math.uiuc.edu/~hildebr/ant
Version 2006.09.01
 
Math 531 Lecture Notes, Fall 2005 Version 2006.09.01
 
Contents
Notation 80 Primes and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 11
0.1 Divisibility and primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.2 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . 130.3 The innitude of primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1 Arithmetic functions I: Elementary theory 19
1.1 Introduction and basic examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.2 Additive and multiplicative functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.3 The Moebius function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.4 The Euler phi (totient) function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281.5 The von Mangoldt function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.6 The divisor and sum-of-divisors functions . . . . . . . . . . . 301.7 The Dirichlet product of arithmetic functions . . . . . . . . . 311.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2 Arithmetic functions II: Asymptotic estimates 41
2.1 Big oh and small oh notations, asymptotic equivalence . . . . 422.1.1 Basic denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.1.2 Extensions and remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.1.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.1.4 The logarithmic integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482.2 Sums of smooth functions: Euler’s summation formula . . . . 502.2.1 Statement of the formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502.2.2 Partial sums of the harmonic series . . . . . . . . . . . 512.2.3 Partial sums of the logarithmic function and Stirling’sformula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

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