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Kennard07

# Kennard07

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07/15/2012

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Two classic theorems from number theory:The Prime Number Theorem and Dirichlet’s Theorem
Senior Exercise in MathematicsLee Kennard15 November, 2006

Contents
0 Notes and Notation 31 Introduction 42 Primes in the odd integers 5
2.1 The innitude of primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 The Prime Number Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.2.1 History of the Prime Number Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2.2 An analytic theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2.3 Newman’s proof of the Prime Number Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Primes in arithmetic progressions 24
3.1 Dirichlets Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.1.1 Euler’s proof for
q
= 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.1.2 Dirichlet characters and
L
-functions (prime modulus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.1.3 Dirichlets proof (prime modulus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.1.4 Dirichlet characters and
L
-functions (general modulus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.1.5 Dirichlets proof (general modulus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413.1.6 A probabilistic interpretation of Dirichlet’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463.2 The Generalized Prime Number Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
A Appendix 49
A.1 Complex Integration and Dierentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49A.1.1 Complex Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49A.1.2 Complex Dierentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50A.2 The Leibniz Integral Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50A.3 Useful algebraic concepts and facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52A.3.1 The multiplicative group
Z
p
α
is cyclic for all odd prime
p
. . . . . . . . . . . 52A.3.2 The multiplicative group
Z
2
α
for
n
3 is generated by 5 and
1. . . . . . . . 54A.3.3 The Legendre Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55A.4 Carefully considered convergence issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56A.4.1 Innite products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56A.4.2 Combining absolutely convergent series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57A.4.3 The Dirichlet test for convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58A.4.4 The Taylor series for
log(1
z
) converges for all
z
= 1 such that
|
z
|
1 . . 602

0 Notes and Notation
Proving the Prime Number Theorem (PNT) might have been suﬃcient for a senior exercise; it isa beautiful fact which is nontrivial to prove. I had thought about Dirichlet’s theorem on primes inarithmetic progressions as well, but I thought that both would be too much, so my real plan was todo one or the other. Once I ﬁnished the proof of the PNT, however, I had some momentum, and Iwas having fun. Sure, I had learned about Abel’s Lemma, the Dirichlet test for convergence, andthe Leibniz integral rule, but all of these seemed to me disconnected tools, used together here onlybecause they happened to be necessary for the proof. I longed for unity or, as least, somethingwhich I could add to make this exercise a whole. Since the Dirichlet theorem interested me, hereis what I came up with. I asked the questions “Do there exist inﬁnitely many primes” (in the setof natural numbers
N
or in arithmetic progressions in
N
) and, if so, how are these primes (in
N
orin these arithmetic progressions) distributed – that is, how dense are they in
N
? Euclid and, later,Euler answered the ﬁrst half of the ﬁrst question; Dirichlet answered the second half; the PrimeNumber Theorem (PNT) answered the ﬁrst half of the second question; and the generalized PNTanswered the second half.The answers to these four questions form the outline of this exercise. Along the way, wewill do some analytic number theory: we will deﬁne the Riemann
ζ
-function and the Dirichlet
L
-functions; we will do some complex analysis: we will use the notion of compactness severaltimes (thank you Professor Schumacher), continuously deform contours of integration (thank youProfessor Holdener), and “analytically continue” functions; we will do some abstract algebra: wewill use Lagrange’s theorem multiple times
1
(thank you Professor Aydin), prove that
Z
p
α
is cyclicfor odd primes
p
, and deﬁne Dirichlet characters on
Z
q
for all positive integers
q
; and, at one point,we will even do some probability theory (thank you Professor Hartlaub).
2
The following notation will be used throughout the paper:
N
the set of positive integers 1
,
2
,
3
,...
Z
the set of integers
...,
1
,
0
,
1
,...
R
the set of real numbers
C
the set of complex numbers
Z
q
the ring
Z
/q
ZZ
q
the multiplicative group of invertible elements of
Z
q
(
s
) denotes the real part o
s
C
(
s
) denotes the imaginary part of
s
C
φ
(
n
) the Euler totient function
ζ
(
s
) the Riemann zeta function (deﬁned below)
1
In the words of John B. Fraleigh, author of
A ﬁrst course in abstract algebra
: “Never underestimate the powerof a theorem which counts something!”
2
I also want to thank Professor Milnikel and Professor Brown; a large portion of what I understand is understoodbecause I understand linear algebra.
3

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