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EIG G Sizing Protection Conductors

EIG G Sizing Protection Conductors

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Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
G
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
Chapter GSizing and protection o conductors
Contents
General G2
1.1 Methodology and denition G21.2 Overcurrent protection principles G41.3 Practical values or a protective scheme G41.4 Location o protective devices G61.5 Conductors in parallel G6
 
Practical method or determining the smallest allowable G7cross-sectional area o circuit conductors
2.1 General G72.2 General method or cables G72.3 Recommended simplied approach or cables G162.4 Busbar trunking systems G18
 
Determination o voltage drop G20
 
3.1 Maximum voltage drop limit G203.2 Calculation o voltage drop in steady load conditions G21
 
Short-circuit current G24
 
4.1 Short-circuit current at the secondary terminals o G24a MV/LV distribution transormer4.2 3-phase short-circuit current (
I
sc) at any point within G25a LV installation4.3
I
sc at the receiving end o a eeder in terms o the
I
sc G28at its sending end4.4 Short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter G29
 
Particular cases o short-circuit current G30
 
5.1 Calculation o minimum levels o short-circuit current G305.2 Verication o the withstand capabilities o cables under G35short-circuit conditions
 
Protective earthing conductor G37
 
6.1 Connection and choice G376.2 Conductor sizing G386.3 Protective conductor between MV/LV transormer and G40the main general distribution board (MGDB)6.4 Equipotential conductor G41
 
The neutral conductor G42
 
7.1 Sizing the neutral conductor G427.2 Protection o the neutral conductor G427.3 Breaking o the neutral conductor G447.4 Isolation o the neutral conductor G44
Worked example o cable calculation G46
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
G - Sizing and protection o conductors
G2
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
 General
. Methodology and denition
Methodology
 
(see
Fig. G
)Following a preliminary analysis o the power requirements o the installation, asdescribed in Chapter B Clause 4, a study o cabling
(1)
and its electrical protection isundertaken, starting at the origin o the installation, through the intermediate stagesto the nal circuits.The cabling and its protection at each level must satisy several conditions at thesame time, in order to ensure a sae and reliable installation, e.g. it must:
b
Carry the permanent ull load current, and normal short-time overcurrents
b
Not cause voltage drops likely to result in an inerior perormance o certain loads,or example: an excessively long acceleration period when starting a motor, etc.Moreover, the protective devices (circuit-breakers or uses) must:
b
Protect the cabling and busbars or all levels o overcurrent, up to and includingshort-circuit currents
b
Ensure protection o persons against indirect contact hazards, particularly inTN- and IT- earthed systems, where the length o circuits may limit the magnitudeo short-circuit currents, thereby delaying automatic disconnection (it may beremembered that TT- earthed installations are necessarily protected at the origin bya RCD, generally rated at 300 mA).The cross-sectional areas o conductors are determined by the general methoddescribed in Sub-clause 2 o this Chapter. Apart rom this method some nationalstandards may prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed or reasonso mechanical endurance. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter N) require that thecable supplying them be oversized, and that the protection o the circuit be likewisemodied.
Fig. G1
: Flow-chart or the selection o cable size and protective device rating or a given circuit 
(1) The term “cabling” in this chapter, covers all insulatedconductors, including multi-core and single-core cables andinsulated wires drawn into conduits, etc.
Component parts o an electric circuit and its protection are determined such that all normal and abnormal operating conditions are satisfed 
Power demand:
- kVA to be supplied- Maximum load current
I
B
Conductor sizing:
- Selection of conductor type and insulation- Selection of method of installation- Taking account of correction factors fordifferent environment conditions- Determination of cross-sectional areas usingtables giving the current carrying capability
Verification of the maximum voltage drop:
- Steady state conditions- Motor starting conditions
Calculation of short-circuit currents:
- Upstream short-circuit power- Maximum values- Minimum values at conductor end
Selection of protective devices:
- Rated current- Breaking capability- Implementation of cascading- Check of discrimination
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
G - Sizing and protection o conductors
G3
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Fig. G2 
 : Calculation o maximum load current 
Denitions
Maximum load current:
I
B
b
At the nal circuits level, this current corresponds to the rated kVA o the load.In the case o motor-starting, or other loads which take a high in-rush current,particularly where requent starting is concerned (e.g. lit motors, resistance-typespot welding, and so on) the cumulative thermal eects o the overcurrents must betaken into account. Both cables and thermal type relays are aected.
b
At all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied,which takes account o the actors o simultaneity (diversity) and utilization, ks and kurespectively, as shown in
Figure G2
.
Main distributionboardSub-distributionboard80 A60 A100 AMNormal loadmotor current50 ACombined factors of simultaneity(or diversity) and utilization:ks x ku = 0.69
I
B
= (80+60+100+50) x 0.69 = 200 A50 A
Maximum permissible current:
I
z
This is the maximum value o current that the cabling or the circuit can carryindenitely, without reducing its normal lie expectancy.The current depends, or a given cross sectional area o conductors, on severalparameters:
b
Constitution o the cable and cable-way (Cu or Alu conductors; PVC or EPR etc.insulation; number o active conductors)
b
Ambient temperature
b
Method o installation
b
Infuence o neighbouring circuits
Overcurrents
An overcurrent occurs each time the value o current exceeds the maximum loadcurrent
I
B
or the load concerned.This current must be cut o with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude, ipermanent damage to the cabling (and appliance i the overcurrent is due to adeective load component) is to be avoided.Overcurrents o relatively short duration can however, occur in normal operation; twotypes o overcurrent are distinguished:
b
OverloadsThese overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits, or example, due to anumber o small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally: motorstarting loads, and so on. I either o these conditions persists however beyond agiven period (depending on protective-relay settings or use ratings) the circuit will beautomatically cut o.
b
Short-circuit currentsThese currents result rom the ailure o insulation between live conductors or/andbetween live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthedneutrals) in any combination, viz:
v
3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not)
v
2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not)
v
1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth)
 General

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