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EIG-H-LV-switchgear

EIG-H-LV-switchgear

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Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
H
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Chapter HLV switchgear: unctions &selection
Contents
 The basic unctions o LV switchgear H2
1.1 Electrical protection H21.2 Isolation H31.3 Switchgear control H4
The switchgear H5
 
2.1 Elementary switching devices H52.2 Combined switchgear elements H9
Choice o switchgear H0
 
3.1 Tabulated unctional capabilities H103.2 Switchgear selection H10
Circuit-breaker H
 
4.1 Standards and description H114.2 Fundamental characteristics o a circuit-breaker H134.3 Other characteristics o a circuit-breaker H154.4 Selection o a circuit-breaker H184.5 Coordination between circuit-breakers H224.6 Discrimination MV/LV in a consumer’s substation H28
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
H - LV switchgear: unctions & selection
H2
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The basic unctions oLV switchgear
The role o switchgear is: 
b
Electrical protection 
b
Sae isolation rom live parts 
b
Local or remote switching 
National and international standards dene the manner in which electric circuits oLV installations must be realized, and the capabilities and limitations o the variousswitching devices which are collectively reerred to as switchgear.The main unctions o switchgear are:
b
Electrical protection
b
Electrical isolation o sections o an installation
b
Local or remote switchingThese unctions are summarized below in
Figure H
.Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart rom uses) normally incorporated incircuit-breakers, in the orm o thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping devices (less-commonly, residual voltage- operated devices- acceptable to, but not recommended by IEC).In addition to those unctions shown in Figure H1, other unctions, namely:
b
Over-voltage protection
b
Under-voltage protectionare provided by specic devices (lightning and various other types o voltage-surgearrester, relays associated with contactors, remotely controlled circuit-breakers, andwith combined circuit-breaker/isolators… and so on)
Fig. H1
: Basic unctions o LV switchgear 
. Electrical protection
The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences oexcessive (short-circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation ailure,and to separate the deective circuit rom the rest o the installation.A distinction is made between the protection o:
b
The elements o the installation (cables, wires, switchgear…)
b
Persons and animals
b
Equipment and appliances supplied rom the installation
The protection o circuits
v
Against overload; a condition o excessive current being drawn rom a healthy(unaulted) installation
v
Against short-circuit currents due to complete ailure o insulation betweenconductors o dierent phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (orPE) conductorProtection in these cases is provided either by uses or circuit-breaker, in thedistribution board at the origin o the nal circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the loadis connected). Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some nationalstandards, as noted in chapter H1 sub-clause 1.4.
The protection o persons
v
Against insulation ailures. According to the system o earthing or the installation(TN, TT or IT) the protection will be provided by uses or circuit-breakers, residualcurrent devices, and/or permanent monitoring o the insulation resistance o theinstallation to earth
The protection o electric motors
v
Against overheating, due, or example, to long term overloading, stalled rotor,single-phasing, etc. Thermal relays, specially designed to match the particularcharacteristics o motors are used.Such relays may, i required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload.Short-circuit protection is provided either by type aM uses or by a circuit-breakerrom which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed, orotherwise made inoperative.
Electrical protection assures: 
b
Protection o circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses o short-circuit currents 
b
Protection o persons in the event o insulation ailure 
b
Protection o appliances and apparatus being supplied (e.g. motors, etc.) 
Electrical protection Isolation Controlagainst
b
Overload currents
b
Isolation clearly indicated
b
Functional switching
b
Short-circuit currents by an authorized ail-proo
b
Emergency switching
b
Insulation ailure mechanical indicator
b
Emergency stopping
b
A gap or interposed insulating
b
Switching o orbarrier between the open mechanical maintenancecontacts, clearly visible
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
H - LV switchgear: unctions & selection
H3
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.2 Isolation
The aim o isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus (such as a motor, etc.) romthe remainder o a system which is energized, in order that personnel may carry outwork on the isolated part in perect saety.In principle, all circuits o an LV installation shall have means to be isolated.In practice, in order to maintain an optimum continuity o service, it is preerred toprovide a means o isolation at the origin o each circuit.An isolating device must ull the ollowing requirements:
b
All poles o a circuit, including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PENconductor) must open
(1)
b
It must be provided with a locking system in open position with a key (e.g. bymeans o a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence
b
 
It must comply with a recognized national or international standard(e.g. IEC 60947-3) concerning clearance between contacts, creepage distances,overvoltage withstand capability, etc.:Other requirements apply:
v
Verication that the contacts o the isolating device are, in act, open.The verication may be:- Either visual, where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen(some national standards impose this condition or an isolating device located at theorigin o a LV installation supplied directly rom a MV/LV transormer)- Or mechanical, by means o an indicator solidly welded to the operating shato the device. In this case the construction o the device must be such that, in theeventuality that the contacts become welded together in the closed position, theindicator cannot possibly indicate that it is in the open position
v
Leakage currents. With the isolating device open, leakage currents between theopen contacts o each phase must not exceed:- 0.5 mA or a new device- 6.0 mA at the end o its useul lie
v
Voltage-surge withstand capability, across open contacts. The isolating device,when open must withstand a 1.2/50 
μ
s impulse, having a peak value o 6, 8 or 12 kVaccording to its service voltage, as shown in
Figure H2
. The device must satisythese conditions or altitudes up to 2,000 metres. Correction actors are given inIEC 60664-1 or altitudes greater than 2,000 metres.Consequently, i tests are carried out at sea level, the test values must be increasedby 23% to take into account the eect o altitude. See standard IEC 60947.
The basic unctions oLV switchgear
A state o isolation clearly indicated by an approved “ail-proo” indicator, or the visible separation o contacts, are both deemed to satisy the national standards o many countries 
(1) the concurrent opening o all live conductors, while notalways obligatory, is however, strongly recommended (orreasons o greater saety and acility o operation). The neutralcontact opens ater the phase contacts, and closes beorethem (IEC 60947-1).
Service (nominal Impulse withstandvoltage peak voltage category(V) (or 2,000 metres)(kV)III IV
230/400 4 6400/690 6 8690/1,000 8 12
Fig. H2 
: Peak value o impulse voltage according to normal service voltage o test specimen.The degrees III and IV are degrees o pollution defned in IEC 60664-1

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