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EIG L Power Factor Harmonic

EIG L Power Factor Harmonic

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Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
L
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
Chapter LPower actor correction andharmonic ltering
Contents
 Reactive energy and power actor L2
1.1 The nature o reactive energy L21.2 Equipment and appliances requiring reactive energy L21.3 The power actor L31.4 Practical values o power actor L4
 Why to improve the power actor? L5
2.1 Reduction in the cost o electricity L52.2 Technical/economic optimization L5
 How to improve the power actor? L7
 
3.1 Theoretical principles L73.2 By using what equipment? L73.3 The choice between a xed or automatically-regulated bank L9o capacitors
 Where to install power actor correction capacitors? L0
 
4.1 Global compensation L104.2 Compensation by sector L104.3 Individual compensation L11
 How to decide the optimum level o compensation? L2
 
5.1 General method L125.2 Simplied method L125.3 Method based on the avoidance o tari penalties L145.4 Method based on reduction o declared maximum apparentpower (kVA) L14
 Compensation at the terminals o a transormer L5
6.1 Compensation to increase the available active power output L156.2 Compensation o reactive energy absorbed by the transormer L16
 Power actor correction o induction motors L8
7.1 Connection o a capacitor bank and protection settings L187.2 How sel-excitation o an induction motor can be avoided L19
 Example o an installation beore and L20ater power-actor correction
 
The eects o harmonics L2
 
9.1 Problems arising rom power-system harmonics L219.2 Possible solutions L219.3 Choosing the optimum solution L23
 Implementation o capacitor banks L24
 
10.1 Capacitor elements L2410.2 Choice o protection, control devices and connecting cables L25
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
6
 
7
 
8
 
9
 
0
 
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
L - Power actor correction andharmonic ltering
L2
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Reactive energy and poweractor
Alternating current systems supply two orms o energy: 
b
“Active” energy measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) which is converted into mechanical work,heat, light, etc 
b
“Reactive” energy, which again takes two orms: 
v
“Reactive” energy required by inductive circuits (transormers, motors, etc.),
v
“Reactive” energy supplied by capacitive circuits (cable capacitance, power capacitors,etc) 
. The nature o reactive energy
All inductive (i.e. electromagnetic) machines and devices that operate on AC systems
 convert electrical energy rom the power system generators into mechanical workand heat. This energy is measured by kWh meters, and is reerred to as “active”or “wattul” energy. In order to perorm this conversion, magnetic elds have to beestablished in the machines, and these elds are associated with another orm oenergy to be supplied rom the power system, known as “reactive” or “wattless”energy.The reason or this is that inductive circuit cyclically absorbs energy rom the system(during the build-up o the magnetic elds) and re-injects that energy into the system(during the collapse o the magnetic elds) twice in every power-requency cycle.An exactly similar phenomenon occurs with shunt capacitive elements in a powersystem, such as cable capacitance or banks o power capacitors, etc. In this case,energy is stored electrostatically. The cyclic charging and discharging o capacitivecircuit reacts on the generators o the system in the same manner as that describedabove or inductive circuit, but the current fow to and rom capacitive circuit in exactphase opposition to that o the inductive circuit. This eature is the basis on whichpower actor correction schemes depend.It should be noted that while this “wattless” current (more accurately, the “wattless”component o a load current) does not draw power rom the system, it does causepower losses in transmission and distribution systems by heating the conductors.In practical power systems, “wattless” components o load currents are invariablyinductive, while the impedances o transmission and distribution systems arepredominantly inductively reactive. The combination o inductive current passingthrough an inductive reactance produces the worst possible conditions o voltagedrop (i.e. in direct phase opposition to the system voltage).For these reasons (transmission power losses and voltage drop), the power-supplyauthorities reduce the amount o “wattless” (inductive) current as much as possible.“Wattless” (capacitive) currents have the reverse eect on voltage levels and producevoltage-rises in power systems.
The power (kW) associated with “active” energy is usually represented by the letter P.
The reactive power (kvar) is represented by Q. Inductively-reactive power isconventionally positive (+ Q) while capacitively-reactive power is shown as anegative quantity (- Q).The apparent power S (kVA) is a combination o P and Q (see
Fig. L
).Sub-clause 1.3 shows the relationship between P, Q, and S.
Q(kvar)S(kVA)P(kW)
Fig. L1
: An electric motor requires active power P and reactive power Q rom the power system 
Fig. L2 
: Power consuming items that also require reactive energy 
.2 Equipement and appliances requiring reactiveenergy
All AC equipement and appliances that include electromagnetic devices, or dependon magnetically-coupled windings, require some degree o reactive current to createmagnetic fux.The most common items in this class are transormers and reactors, motors anddischarge lamps (with magnetic ballasts) (see
Fig. L2
).The proportion o reactive power (kvar) with respect to active power (kW) when anitem o equipement is ully loaded varies according to the item concerned being:
b
65-75% or asynchronous motors
b
5-10% or transormers
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2009
L - Power actor correction andharmonic ltering
L3
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
.3 The power actor
Denition o power actor
The power actor o a load, which may be a single power-consuming item, or anumber o items (or example an entire installation), is given by the ratio o P/S i.e.kW divided by kVA at any given moment.The value o a power actor will range rom 0 to 1.I currents and voltages are perectly sinusoidal signals, power actor equals cos
ϕ
.A power actor close to unity means that the reactive energy is small compared withthe active energy, while a low value o power actor indicates the opposite condition.
Power vector diagram
b
Active power P (in kW)
v
Single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = V
I
cos
ϕ
v
Single phase (phase to phase): P = U
I
cos
ϕ
v
Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P =
3
U
I
cos
ϕ
b
Reactive power Q (in kvar)
v
Single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = V
I
sin
ϕ
v
Single phase (phase to phase): Q = U
I
sin
ϕ
v
Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P =
3
U
I
sin
ϕ
b
Apparent power S (in kVA)
v
Single phase (1 phase and neutral): S = V
I
v
Single phase (phase to phase): S = U
I
v
Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P =
3
U
I
 where:V = Voltage between phase and neutralU = Voltage between phases
I
= Line current
ϕ
= Phase angle between vectors V and
I.
 
v
For balanced and near-balanced loads on 4-wire systems
Current and voltage vectors, and derivation o the power diagram
The power “vector” diagram is a useul artice, derived directly rom the true rotatingvector diagram o currents and voltage, as ollows:The power-system voltages are taken as the reerence quantities, and one phaseonly is considered on the assumption o balanced 3-phase loading.The reerence phase voltage (V) is co-incident with the horizontal axis, and thecurrent (
I
) o that phase will, or practically all power-system loads, lag the voltage byan angle
ϕ
.The component o
I
which is in phase with V is the “wattul” component o I and isequal to
I
cos
ϕ
, while V
I
cos
ϕ
equals the active power (in kW) in the circuit, i V isexpressed in kV.The component o I which lags 90 degrees behind V is the wattless component o
I
and is equal to
I
sin
ϕ
, while V
I
sin
ϕ
equals the reactive power (in kvar) in thecircuit, i V is expressed in kV.I the vector
I
is multiplied by V, expressed in kV, then V
I
equals the apparent power(in kVA) or the circuit.The simple ormula is obtained: S
2
= P
2
+ Q
2
The above kW, kvar and kVA values per phase, when multiplied by 3, can thereoreconveniently represent the relationships o kVA, kW, kvar and power actor or a total3-phase load, as shown in
Figure L3
.
Reactive energy and poweractor
The power actor is the ratio o kW to kVA.The closer the power actor approaches its maximum possible value o 1, the greater the benet to consumer and supplier.PF = P (kW) / S (kVA) P = Active power S = Apparent power 
Fig. L3 
: Power diagram 
 
P = Active powerQ = Reactive powerS = Apparent power
Q = V
I
sin
ϕ
 
(kvar)S = V
I
(kVA)V
ϕ
P = V
I
cos
ϕ
(kW)

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