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CVT Test & Digital Simulation

CVT Test & Digital Simulation

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Published by: Michael Parohinog Gregas on Mar 02, 2012
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04/03/2013

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Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformer: LaboratoryTests and Digital Simulations
D. Fernandes Jr., W. L. A. Neves,
 Member, IEEE 
, J. C. A. Vasconcelos, M. V. Godoy
 
Abstract-- In this work, laboratory tests of ferroresonance andcircuit breaker switching were carried out for a 230 kV couplingcapacitor voltage transformer (CCVT). The magnetic core andsurge arrester nonlinear characteristics were taken into accountin the model in order to improve the transient response toovervoltages. Digital simulations were performed using a CCVTmodel with linear parameters obtained from frequency responsemeasurements. It is shown that the CCVT model is fairly accuratein reproducing ferroresonance and low frequency switchingoperations lab tests using digital simulations. Simulations hadshown that transient overvoltages produced inside the CCVT,when a short circuit is cleared at the CCVT secondary side, areeffectively damped out by the ferroresonance suppression circuitand the protection circuit. Comparisons of CCVT transientperformance considering two types of surge arresters, used asprotection circuits, were carried out. Voltages are damped outfaster for the zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arrester as compared tosilicon carbide (SiC) arrester type. Simulation of a currentchopping case study is also presented.Keywords: Coupling capacitor voltage transformer,ferroresonance, overvoltage protection, power system transients,EMTP.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
 OR many years, electric utilities have used couplingcapacitor voltage transformers (CCVT) as input sources toprotective relays and measuring instruments. The steady-stateperformance of the CCVT is well known. However, moreinvestigations are necessary when these equipments aresubmitted to transient overvoltages, specially due to the needof laboratory measurements [1]-[3].Brazilian electric utilities have reported unexpectedovervoltage protective device operations during normalswitching conditions in several 230 kV and 500 kV CCVTunits, affecting the reliability of the power system and evencausing failures in some CCVT units [4]. A thoroughinvestigation of the CCVT transient behavior is needed.In this work, ferroresonance and switching operation testswere carried out for a 230 kV CCVT unit at our high voltagelaboratory in order to validate the CCVT model developed in a
The work was supported by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq).D. Fernandes Jr. and W. L. A. Neves are with Universidade Federal deCampina Grande (UFCG), 58.109-970, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil (e-mails:damasio@dee.ufcg.edu.br, waneves@dee.ufcg.edu.br).J. C. A. Vasconcelos and M. V. Godoy are with Companhia Hidro Elétrica doSão Francisco (CHESF), 50.761-901, Recife, PE, Brazil (e-mails: jcrabreu@chesf.gov.br, methodio@chesf.gov.br).
Presented at the International Conference on Power SystemsTransients (IPST’05) in Montreal, Canada on June 19-23, 2005Paper No. IPST05 - 076
 
previous work [5] in which only frequency domainmeasurements were available to obtain the CCVT parametersand ferroresonance digital simulations were carried out. In thepresent work, for validation purposes in time-domain, digitalsimulations were compared to lab tests of transientovervoltages, including ferroresonance tests, for the sameCCVT with fairly small errors.The obtained CCVT model was used to predict its transientresponse. It was observed that the ferroresonance suppressioncircuit and the protection circuit are very effective in dampingout transient overvoltages produced inside the CCVT when ashort circuit is cleared at the CCVT secondary side.Simulations of CCVT performance considering two kinds of surge arresters as protection circuit were carried out. Voltagewaveforms would damp out faster if a zinc oxide (ZnO) surgearrester were used instead of the conventional silicon carbide(SiC) arrester supplied by the CCVT manufacturer.A current chopping case study was also analyzed. This caseproduces one of the worst overvoltage stress to the CCVT.II. U
NDERLYING
C
ONCEPTS
 The basic electrical diagram for a typical CCVT is shownin Fig. 1. The primary side consists of two capacitive elements
1
and
2
connected in series. The potential transformer (PT)provides a secondary voltage
v
o
for protective relays andmeasuring instruments. The inductance
 L
c
is chosen to avoidphase shifts between
v
i
and
v
o
at power frequency.Ferroresonance oscillations may take place if the circuitcapacitances resonate with the iron core nonlinear inductance.The oscillations cause incorrect input to relays and measuringinstruments. Ferroresonance suppression circuits (FSC) tunedat power frequency (
 L
in parallel with
) and a resistance toground have been used to damp out oscillations requiring asmall amount of energy during steady-state [3], [6]-[7].
v
 
o
 
L
 
I
 
N
 
E
 
v
 
i
 
 
1
 
 
2
 
PT
 
FSC
 
 L
 
c
 
 Z 
 
b
 
Fig. 1. Basic electrical diagram for a typical CCVT.
F
 
III. CCVT M
ODELING
 The diagram shown in Fig. 1 is valid only near powerfrequency (60 Hz). A model to be applicable for frequencies inthe ferroresonance range and up to a few kilohertz needs totake at least the potential transformer primary winding andcompensating inductor stray capacitances effects into account[2]-[3], [6]-[7].In this work, the circuit shown in Fig. 2 was used to modelthe CCVT. It comprises the following linear parameters: acapacitor stack (
1
,
 
2
); a compensating inductor (
 R
c
,
 L
c
,
c
); apotential transformer (
 R
 p
,
 L
 p
,
 p
,
 L
m
,
 R
m
) and a ferroresonancesuppression circuit (
 R
 f 
,
 L
 f 
1
,
 L
 f 
2
,
 M 
,
 f 
).The FSC design is shown in Fig. 3(a). A nonsaturable ironcore inductor
 L
 f 
 
is connected in parallel with a capacitor
 f 
sothat the circuit is tuned to the fundamental frequency with ahigh Q factor [3]. The FSC digital model is shown in Fig. 3(b).The damping resistor
 R
 f 
is used to attenuate ferroresonanceoscillations.
2
 
1
 
c
 
 L
c
 
 R
c
 
 L
 p
 
 R
 p
 
 Z 
b
 
 L
m
 
 R
m
 
 p
 LINE
 f 
 
 L
 f 
1
 
 L
 f 
2
− 
 M  R
 f 
 
Fig. 2. CCVT model for identification of parameters.
 f 
 
 L
 f 
 
 R
 f 
 
 f 
 
 L
 f 
1
 
 L
 f 
2
 
− 
 M  R
 f 
 Fig. 3. (a) FSC design. (b) FSC digital model.
The circuit shown in Fig. 2 can be replaced by Fig. 4 withimpedances
 Z 
1
,
 Z 
2
,
 Z 
3
,
 Z 
4
,
 Z 
5
and all elements referred to thePT secondary side.The expressions for the referred impedances in the
s
 domain, with
s
=
 j
ω
, are:
2
2
 
2
1
 Z 
1
 Z 
2
 Z 
b
 
2
 p
 
v
i
 / 
v
o
 Z 
3
 Z 
4
 Z 
5
34LINE12
Fig. 4. CCVT model with blocks of impedances.
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
.; // 1; // ;;1 // 
521422322221
sM  R Z sLsC sL Z  sL R Z  sL R Z  sC sL R Z 
 f  f  f  f mm p pccc
=+==+=+=
 
(1)
 
Where,
is the PT ratio and the symbol // denotes thatelements are in parallel. The linear parameters
 R
,
 L
,
wereobtained from curve fitting algorithm based on Newton’smethod to mach the transfer functions represented by the ratio
v
o
 /v
i
. This fitting technique is an improvement over the onepresented in [6]-[7] because here both magnitude and phasecurves are fitted simultaneously. The technique details werepresented at a previous work [5].IV. L
ABORATORY
M
EASUREMENTS
 
 A. Frequency Response Measurements
Frequency response measurements of magnitude and phasewere carried out for the 230 kV CCVT. In order to attenuatehigh frequency noises, a low-pass filter was connected acrossone of the CCVT secondary windings. A signal generatorfeeding an amplifier was connected across the high voltageterminal and the ground, according to Fig. 5.
Signalgenerator
 
Poweramplifier
 
v
i
 
Oscilloscope
 
 
Filter
 
Y
1
 
Y
3
 
230 kVCCVT
v
o
 Fig. 5. Frequency response measurements for the 230 kV CCVT.
 B. 230 kV CCVT Nonlinear Characteristics
The surge arrester and the magnetic core nonlinearcharacteristics were included in the model to give morerealistic results for the simulated CCVT transient response toovervoltages. The point by point silicon carbide (SiC) surgearrester (
v
 
 
i
) curve and the PT nonlinear peak flux
current(
λ
 
 
i
) characteristic were estimated from laboratorymeasurements according to the procedures presented in [5].The results are shown in tables I and II, respectively.
TABLE IS
ILICON CARBIDE SURGE ARRESTER NONLINEAR CHARACTERISTIC
.
Current (A) Voltage (kV)100 20.8200 27.9500 39.01000 42.92000 45.5
 
TABLE IIN
ONLINEAR CHARACTERISTIC OF THE
PT
MAGNETIC CORE
.
Current (A) Flux (V.s)0.076368 0.0257720.720881 0.1890661.429369 0.3968892.511675 0.7483883.662012 0.8635534.587227 0.9033175.712037 0.94270655.527018 1.5564155552.7018 1.562242V. M
ODEL
V
ALIDATION
 
 A. 230 kV CCVT Parameters from Measurements
The 230 kV CCVT constant parameters were obtained fromfrequency response data points of magnitude and phasemeasured at our high voltage laboratory. The fitted parametersare shown in Table III. The magnitude and phase curves forthe measured and fitted voltage ratios are shown in figures 6and 7, respectively.After the fitting procedure, the average errors of magnitudeand phase are, respectively, 5.2 % and 8.9
o
. According tofigures 6 and 7, the errors are fairly small for frequencies up to2 kHz. Near 60 Hz the magnitude and phase errors are verysmall. This is the region in which the CCVT operates most of the time.
TABLE III230
K
V CCVT
CALCULATED PARAMETERS
.
 R
c
= 9.1 k 
 
 L
 p
= 114.7 H
 L
 f 
2
= 47.39 mH
 L
c
= 86.3 H
 R
m
= 50.6
 
 R
 f 
= 4.99
 
c
= 493.2 nF
 L
m
= 700 mH
 M 
= 9.31 mH
 p
= 9.3 pF
 L
 f 
1
= 10.87 mH
 
 R
 p
= 920
 
 f 
= 166.39
µ
F
 
1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4Frequency (Hz)-25.0-20.0-15.0-10.0-5.00.05.0
   G   a    i   n   (    d   B   )
Fitted curveLaboratory m easurements
 Fig. 6. Magnitude curves for the measured and fitted 230 kV CCVT voltageratios.
1.0E+1 1.0E+2 1.0E+3 1.0E+4Frequency (Hz)-180.0-150.0-120.0-90.0-60.0-30.00.030.060.090.0
   P    h   a   s   e   (    d   e   g   r   e   e   s   )
Laboratory measurementsFitted curve
 Fig. 7. Phase curves for the measured and fitted 230 kV CCVT voltageratios.
 B. Ferroresonance Test 
While in the previous work [5], only ferroresonancesimulations were performed to analyze the CCVT transientbehavior, in this work the ferroresonance test was carried outin order to validate the CCVT model in time-domain studies.IEC 186 Standard [8] establishes that for the ferroresonancetest the CCVT must be energized at 1.2 per unit of ratedvoltage. One of the CCVT secondary terminals with a nearlyzero burden is then short-circuited. The short-circuit must besustained during three cycles, at least.For electromagnetic transient studies, the CCVT model isshown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Arrangement to perform the ferroresonance test for the 230 kV CCVT.
OscilloscopeMicrocomputer
 R
c
 
c
  L
c
 
 p
  L
 p
R
 p
1
 
v
 
 
i
 
 
~
 R
m
 
λ
 
 
i
 
 L
 f 
2
 f 
  L
 f 
1
 M 
 
 R
 f 
 
2
 20.8 kV
rms
2 M
 400 k 
 1563 nF0.2 nFHigh voltagedividerLow voltagedividerCircuitbreakerGap

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