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Calculul ecuatiilor matriciale

Calculul ecuatiilor matriciale

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Published by: dragoseduard on Mar 02, 2012
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03/02/2012

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Calculul ecuatiilor matriciale
  Fie
A, B
 M 
m× m
( C),
A = a
11
a
12
a
13
 
……...a
1m
, B= b
11
b
 
12
b
13
 
……b
1m
a
21
a
22
a
23
 
……...a
2m
b
21
b
 
22
b
23
 
……b
2m
a
31
a
32
a
33
 
……...a
3m
b
31
b
 
32
b
33
 
……b
3m
……………………… ……………………a
m1
a
m2
a
m3
 
……..a
mm
b
m1
 b
 
m2
b
m3
 
…..b
mm
 
astfel încât 
 A 
så fie ne singularå ( deci så existe
 A 
-1
 ). Så consideråm ecua-tiilematriceale :
AX=B, YA=B
înmultind prima ecuatie la stânga cu
 A 
-1
si pe a doua la dreapta cu
 A 
-1
, se obtine:
A
-1
(AX)= A
-1
B, (YA) A
-1
= BA
-1
 
 folosind asociativitatea matricilor se obtine:
(A
-1
A)X= A
-1
B, Y(A A
-1
)= BA
-1
dar
(A
-1
A)=I
m
si folosind proprietatea matricii identice,se va obtine:
X= A
-1
B, Y= BA
-1
iar prin calculul 
 
A
-1
B
si
B A
-1
 
se va obtine
 
X, Y
.
 De obicei 
X,Y
 
sunt diferitedeoarece înmultirea matricilor nu este comutativå:
 
Så se rezolve urmåtoarele ecuatii matriciale: 1. 2 1 5 6 2 1 5 6· X = ,notez A= ,B=2 3 6 8 2 3 6 8A
-1
·/A·X=B
A
-1
·(A·X)= A
-1
B
(A
-1
·A)·X= A
-1
B
I
2
·X= A
-1
B
X= A
-1
B
det
A = 2·3 – 2 = 4A
-1
=(1/
det
A)·A*a*
11
a*
21
 A*=a*
12
a*
22
a*
11
=(-1)
2
·3= 3a*
12
=(-1)
3
·2= -2a*
21
=(-1)
3
·1= -1a*
22
=(-1)
4
·2= 2
 
3 -1A*=-2 23 -1 3/4 -1/4A
-1
=(1/4) · =-2 2 -1/2 1/23/4 -1/4 5 6 9/4 5/2X= · =-1/2 1/2 6 8 1/2 12. -1 -2 1 2 -1 -2 1 2= ,notez A= ,B=5 8 -3 6 5 8 -3 6X·A=B/·A
-1
(X·A)·A
-1
=B·A
-1
X·(A·A
-1
)=B ·A
-1
X ·I
2
=B· A
-1
X= B ·A
-1
 
det
A = -8 +10 =2A
-1
=(1/
det
A)·A*a*
11
a*
21
 A*=a*
12
a*
22
a*
11
=(-1)
2
·8= 8a*
12
=(-1)
3
·(-2)=2a*
21
=(-1)
3
·5= -5a*
22
=(-1)
4
·(-1)= -18 2A*=-5 -18 2 4 1A
-1
=(1/2) · =-5 -1 -5/2 -1/27 2 4 1 23 6X= · =-3 5 -5/2 -1/2 -49/4 -11/2
 
3. -1 2 4 6 8 13 -1 2 4 6 8 13·X· = ,notez A= ,B= ,C =-3 8 5 8 -4 -7 -3 8 5 8 -4 -7A·X·B=C/·B
-1
(A·X·B)·B
-1
=C·B
-1
(A·X)·(B·B
-1
)=C·B
-1
(A·X)·I
2
=C·B
-1
 
(A
-1
)·/A·X=C·B
-1
A
-1
(A·X)=A
-1
·C·B
-1
(A
-1
·A)·X=A
-1
·C·B
-1
I
2
·X=A
1
·C· B
-1
X=A
-1
·C·B
-1
det
A = -8 +6 =-2A
-1
=(1/
det
A)·A*a*
11
a*
21
 A*=a*
12
a*
22
a*
11
=(-1)
2
·8= 8a*
12
=(-1)
3
·(-3)=3a*
21
=(-1)
3
·2= -2a*
22
=(-1)
4
·(-1)= -18 -2A*=3 -18 -2 -4 1A
-1
=[1/-(2)] · =3 -1 -3/2 1/2
det
B= 32-30 =2B
-1
=(1/
det
B)·B*b*
11
b*
21
 B*= b*
12
b*
22
 b*
11
=(-1)
2
·8= 8 b*
12
=(-1)
3
·5=-5 b*
21
=(-1)
3
·6= -6 b*
22
=(-1)
4
·4= 48 -6B*=-5 4

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