A Guide for the Preparation of Research Manuscripts
According to American Psychological Association (APA) Format1
Clarksig A. Freudhull
Barat College of DePaul University (APA, 1.06)
Abstract (APA, 1.07)
The abstract is typed, double-spaced as a single paragraph without paragraph
indentation. It should describe succinctly and clearly -- in 100 to 120 words (960
characters, including spaces) -- the a) problem, b) subjects, c) method, d) results, and
e) conclusions of the research. Because the abstract is to be a concise summary of the
contents of an article, it should be written last, after the body of the manuscript has been
written. A well-written abstract permits a reader to understand the essential or critical
points of the article without investing the time required to study the entire article. The
abstract is self-contained and meaningful without reference to the body of the
manuscript. The words which appear in the upper right-hand corner five spaces from
the page number (termed the running head) are taken from the first two or three
meaningful words of the title and are used on each page (except figure pages) in this
position to identify the manuscript in case the pages are separated; a manuscript is
never stapled. At the top of the title page (only) the words Running Head: appear for
publication purposes. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters,
counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words.
Page three of the manuscript is commonly termed the introduction and begins with the title (centered, typed in uppercase and lowercase letters above the first line of the introduction). The title of the research article should be carefully chosen since it often will be the criterion by which a person decides whether to read or not to read the article. The title should be no longer than 12-15 words and identify the major topic as well as mention the major variables or treatments employed. Use a \u201cregular\u201d 12-point font to type all manuscripts.
The introduction (APA, 1.08) is just that. This section introduces the research by
(a) explaining the rationale for the research, (b) reviewing briefly the results or
implications of related research, and (c) indicating what particular hypotheses are to be
considered. The introduction to the research article, however, is not intended to provide
an exhaustive review of related research, and, therefore, the author must choose
carefully from among relevant articles in order to provide the most appropriate
introduction to the research.
A research manuscript reports the results of a scientific project and a so-called
"literary style" is not appropriate (see Tone - APA, 1.05). The author must attempt to
write the manuscript in a clear and objective manner. The "scientific style" aided by the
use of words with precise meaning, by the orderly presentation of ideas, and by
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