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105
_______________________________________________4
HIGH PERMITTIVITY DIELECTRICS
The major application of ferroelectrics is for capacitors, utilizing their high
dielectric constants around the Curie temperature.
4.1 CERAMIC CAPACITORS
There are two classes of ceramic capacitors: one is for thermal compensation of

electric circuits, using a TiO2-based material and the other is a high permittivity capacitor with a BaTiO3- or Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based material. More precisely, there are four primary categories of dielectrics:

1) High-Q, low-dielectric constant K (100) temperature compensating
materials (capacitance change \u00b1 30 ppm),
2) Intermediate-K (3000) materials, labeled X7R or BX (\u00b1 15%),
3) High K (10,000) formulations, known as Z5U or Z5V (20 - 50%),
4) Nonhomogeneous, barrier layer materials that can have effective K up to
100,000.
Figure 4.1 summarizes the various capacitor types, highlighting their sizes and

operating frequency ranges.1) Ceramic capacitors with a single parallel plate design are still the most popular, while multilayer ceramic capacitors are 1/20 - 1/30 the size of the single parallel plate type. Semiconductor capacitors exhibit large capacitance using very thin dielectric layers in a semiconductor based ceramic (see Chapter 9, Section 9.3). Micro-chip capacitors are ultra-small capacitors for high frequency applications.

The basic specifications required for capacitors are:
(a) Small size, large capacitance
Materials with a large dielectric constant are desired.
(b) High frequency characteristics

Ferroelectrics with a high dielectric constant are sometimes associated with dielectric dispersion, which must be taken into account for practical applications.

(c) Temperature characteristics
We need to design materials to stabilize the temperature
characteristics.
106
Chapter 4
300 MHz
30 GHz
30 MHz
3 MHz
300 kHz
30 kHz
3 GHz
Satellite
Commun.
Automobile
Commun.
UHF TV
VHF TV
FM Radio
AM Radio
Ceramic
Capacitor
Multilayer
Ceramic
Capacitor
Semi-
conductor
Capacitor
Micro
Chip
Capacitor
1 cm
Fig. 4.1Various capacitor types classified according to their sizes and operating
frequency ranges.
Example Problem 4.1_________________________________________________
Calculate the wavelength in air (\u03b5 = 1) and in a dielectric material with\u03b5 = 30 for
electromagnetic wave at 10 GHz.
Solution
_
Taking account of c = 3.0 x 108 m/s in air and v = c /\u221a \u03b5 in the dielectric,
\u03bb= c / f = 3.0 x 108 / 10 x 109 = 3 x 10-2 [m] = 3 [cm] (in air)
__
= 3 x 10-2 /\u221a30 [m] = 5.5 [mm]
___________________________________________________________________
4.2 CHIP CAPACITORS
Multilayer structures have been developed as part of capacitor manufacturing aimed

at the integration of electrical circuit components. Figure 4.2 schematically shows a multilayer capacitor chip. Thin sheets made by the tape casting technique, starting from a slurry of the dielectric powder and organic solvents, are coated with Ag-Pd, Ag, or cheaper Ni or Cu paste is used to form the electrodes, then several tens of sheets are stacked together and sintered. Finally, external electrodes, used to connect the chip with the circuit, are painted on. See Chapter 3, Section 3.3(2) for the details of the manufacturing process.

High Permittivity Dielectrics
107

The layer thickness of multilayer capacitors has been reduced remarkably, with thickness currently on the order of 7 - 10\u00b5m. The electrostatic capacitance of a multilayer capacitor is given by the following formula:

C = n\u03b50\u03b5 S / (L/n),
(4.1)

where\u03b5 is the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, n the number of layers, S the electrode area, and L the total thickness of the capaciator. Note that the capacitance increases in proportion to the square of the number of layers, when the

total size is fixed. Table 4.1 summarizes specifications for several multilayer capacitors.2) The conventional capacitor of 10\u00b5F with a 30\u00b5m layer thickness has a volume of 70 mm3. By decreasing the layer thickness down to 10\u00b5m, the device volume can be reduced to 7.7 mm3. Note that by reducing the layer thickness by 1/n, the total volume is reduced by a factor of (1/n)2 to sustain the same

capacitance.
Electric field direction
Internal electrode
External
electrode
Area S
Total thickness L
Number of layers n
Fig. 4.2Structure of a multilayer capacitor.
Table 4.1Dimensions of the multilayer ceramic capacitors.
_____________________________________________________________
Capacitance Dimensions
Volume Relative Green Sheet
at Room
(mm)
(mm3) Volume Thickness
Temp. (\u00b5F) L W T
(%)
(\u00b5m)
_____________________________________________________________
Present
1
2.0 1.3 0.8
2.1
(100)
10
Ceram. Cap.
10
3.2 1.6 1.5
7.7
100
10
_____________________________________________________________
Conventional
1
3.3 1.7 1.2
6.7
(319)
25
Ceram. Cap.
10
7.0 4.2 2.4
70.0
909
30
_____________________________________________________________
Tantalum
1
3.2 1.6 1.6
8.2
(390)
---
Electrolytic Cap. 10
4.7 2.6 2.1
25.7
334
---
_____________________________________________________________

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