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Thermodynamics

# Thermodynamics

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07/30/2012

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Thermodynamics
21. Thermodynamics
21.1.
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Converting internal energy to mechanical energy is much more difficult than the reverse, and perfect efficiency is impossible. A
heat engine
is a device or system that can perform this conversion; the human body and the earth’s atmosphere are heat engines, as aregasoline and diesel motors, aircraft jet engines, and steam turbines. All heat engines operate by absorbing heat from a reservoir of somekind at a high temperature, performing work, and then giving off heat to a reservoir of some kind at a lower temperature (Fig. 21-1).
Figure 21-1.
Two general principles apply to all heat engines.The
first law of thermodynamics
is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy.According to this law, in any process that a system of some kind (such as a heat engine) undergoes, we have

Here
Q
is the net heat added to the system during the process; if the system gives off heat,
Q
is negative. When the internal energy of thesystem
increases, Δ
is positive; when
decreases, Δ
is negative. The net work done
by
the system during the process is
; if work is done
on
the system,
is negative.If the system is a heat engine that operates in a cycle, energy may be stored and released from storage, but the engine does not undergo anet change in its internal energy during each cycle. In this caseThe net heat input is the amount of heat
Q

1
the engine takes in from the high-temperature reservoir minus the amount of heat
Q

2
theengine gives off to the low-temperature reservoir, as in Fig. 21-1, so that
21.2.
WORK DONE BY AND ON A GAS
The work output of most heat engines is produced by an expanding gas. If the volume of the gas changes from

1
to

2
at the constant pressure
p
, the work done isIf the gas is compressed rather than expanded,

2
is less than

1
and
is negative. This means that work is done
on
the gas during acompression. In the
p-V
(pressure-volume) diagram of  Fig. 21-2the expansion of a gas at constant pressure appears as a horizontal line from

1
to

2
. The area under the line is equal to
p
(

2

1
) and so equals the work
done in the expansion. If the gas pressure variesduring the expansion, the expansion appears as a curved line on a
p-V
diagram, as in Fig. 21-3. We can imagine the region under the curve as divided into thin strips, each corresponding to a small expansion at a different constant pressure so that the total area under thecurve equals the work done in this situation also.
Figure 21-2.

Figure 21-3.
Three important kinds of expansion and comparison that can occur in a gas are as follows:1. An
isobaric
processis one that takes placeat constant pressure. 2. An
isothermal
processis one that takes placeat constant temperature. The expansions and compressions of a gas in a container that is surrounded by a constant-temperature heat reservoir are approximately isothermal.3. An
processis one that takes place in a system so isolated from its surroundings thatheat neither entersnor leaves the system during the process. Most rapid thermodynamic processes are approximately adiabatic becauseheat transfer takes time and a rapid process may be completed before much heat has passed through the walls of thesystem.
21.2.1.
SOLVED PROBLEM 21.1Show that the work done by a gas expanding at the constant pressure
p
from

1
to

2
is given by
=
p
(

2

1
).Figure 21-4 shows a gas-filled cylinder with a movable piston. The cross-sectional area of the cylinder is
A
, and the gas pressure is
p
.Since
p
=
F
/
A
, the force the gas exerts on the piston isThe work done by the gas in moving the piston through the distance Δ
s
is