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Where We Got the Bible (Podcast Outline)

Where We Got the Bible (Podcast Outline)

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Published by Michael Barber
Outline for Podcast on The Sacred Page.
Outline for Podcast on The Sacred Page.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Michael Barber on Mar 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/11/2013

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1
 
 Where We Got the Bible: The Development of the Canon
 
Michael Barber, Ph.D. / John Paul the Great Catholic University © 2012
 
 www.TheSacredPage.com
/
 www.JPCatholic.com
 
Taking God at His Word
1.
 
St. Paul: “All Scripture is
inspired” 
(Gk.
theopneustos
)
—“ 
God-breathed”
 All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching 
, for reproof, for correction, and for training inrighteousness,
17
that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.” (1 Timothy 3:16)
2.
 
But what exactly
is
the Bible?3.
 
Questions:a.
 
 Where did we get it?b.
 
How do Catholics look at the Bible?c.
 
 Will more books be added to it?
The Library of Scripture
1.
 
The Bible is not just a single book2.
 
More like a library!3.
 
Books written (and edited) by different men over a long period of time (centuries)4.
 
 Written in different languages—Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek
 Which Books?
1.
 
 Jewish Bibles: 24 (39) books2.
 
Christian Bibles: OT and NTa.
 
Protestant Bibles: OT=39, NT=27b.
 
Catholic Bibles: OT=46, NT=273.
 
Didn’t Catholics “add” these books?4.
 
 What about books that didn’t make it into the Bible? (Lost Gospels, Dead Sea Scrolls)
Origin of the OT
1.
 
Ancient authoritative textsa.
 
Mosesi.
 
Reads to Israel from the Book of the Covenant (Exod 24:7)ii.
 
 Wrote the Law (Deut 31:9–13, 24–26)b.
 
Other figures associated with writing booksi.
 
 Joshua (Josh 24:26)ii.
 
Samuel (1 Kgs 10:25)iii.
 
David (2 Chr 29:30)iv.
 
Ezra (Neh 8:1–8) v.
 
The Library of Nehemiah (2 Macc 2:13–15)2.
 
Authoritative writings & key eventsa.
 
The “Book of the Law” found in the Temple in the days of Josiah (2 Kings 22–23; 2 Chr 34)b.
 
Ezra reads from the “book of the law” to the returning exiles (Neh 8:18)c.
 
“Book of Moses” read when Nehemiah re-dedicates the Temple (Neh. 13:1ff)d.
 
 Judas Maccabeus “collected all the books” (2 Macc. 2:14)3.
 
Inspiration as a Jewish belief in the Second Century
 With us it is not open to everybody to write the records, and...
there is no discrepancy in what is written
; seeing that, onthe contrary, the prophets alone had this privilege, obtaining their knowledge of the most remote and ancient
history
 
 
2
 
through the inspiration which they owed to God 
, and committing to writing 
 a clear account of the events of their time just  as they occurred 
. . . It follows, I say, that we do not possess myriads of inconsistent books, conflicting with each other. .. For although such long ages have now passed, no
one has ventured either to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable
; andit is an instinct with
every Jew
, from the day of his birth, to regard them
 as the decrees of God 
, to abide by them, and, if need be, cheerfully to die for them. (Josephus,
 Against Apion
, 1.37–43)
No Agreement on the “Canon” in Jesus’ Day 
1.
 
Pharisees: 20 books: 2 missing books, i.e., Esther? (Josephus)
Our books, those which are justly accredited, are but two and twenty, and contain the record of all time.
Of these
  five
are the books of Moses, comprising the laws and the traditional history from the birth of man down to thedeath of the lawgiver. . . [T]he prophets subsequent to Moses wrote the history of the events of their own timesin
thirteen
books. The remaining 
  four 
books contain hymns to God and precepts for the conduct of human life.(Josephus,
 Against Apion
, 1.37–43)
 2.
 
Sadducees: Only the five books of Moses (Josephus, Origen)
“But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies
 ; nor do they regard the observation of   anything besides what the law enjoins them
.” (
 Ant.
18.16)“But although
the Samaritans and Sadducees, who receive the books of Moses alone
, would say that there were containedin them predictions regarding the Messiah, yet certainly not in Jerusalem, which is not even mentioned in the timesof Moses. . .” (Origen,
 Against Celsus
1.49;
 ANF 
4.418).
3.
 
The Dead Sea Scrolls:a.
 
Found in 1947b.
 
350–931 scrolls found in 11 cavesc.
 
Biblical books, other Jewish works and sectarian writings alongside each otherd.
 
No copies of New Testament bookse.
 
Many non-biblical texts apparently read alongside what became “canonical”4.
 
4 Ezra
: 24 Public books
 plus
70 “secret books” (other Jewish writings)
[God] answered me [Ezra] and said, “Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel—thesefive, who are trained to write rapidly; and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding...
So during the forty days
,
ninety-four books were written
. And when the forty days were ended, theMost High spoke to me, saying, “
 Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first,
and let the worthy andthe unworthy read them,
but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your  people. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge.
” And I didso. (
4 Ezra
14:23–48)
5.
 
“Secret Books”a.
 
“Apocrypha”: “hidden writings”b.
 
Pseudepigraphical books: “false writings”
Legend of the “Council of Jamnia”
1.
 
Heinrich Graetz (1871): Theorized that rabbis solved the question in
A
.
D
. 90 at “Council of Jamnia”2.
 
 Jamnia theory made popular by H. E. Ryle3.
 
Ryle stated as fact4.
 
Only evidence cited: Passage in Mishna relating controversy over Ecclesiastes (
m. Eduyoth
5:3)5.
 
Yet passage reveals Rabbis still debating canon in
A
.
D
. 200!6.
 
Babylonian Talmud (finished 5
th
cent.!) cites Sirach
 as Scripture
(
b. B. Qam.
92b;
b.
 Ḥ 
 ag.
13a)!7.
 
No official Jewish Bible in Jesus’ day!
 
 
3
 
The “Extra Seven” Books
1.
 
Later rabbis disputeda.
 
Books not found in Hebrew (but some found in Dead Sea Scrolls, e.g., Sirach)b.
 
Prophecy ceased after (than you must reject Jesus!)2.
 
Included in Greek Version of Old Testament (Septuagint)3.
 
 Jerome (4
th
cent.)a.
 
Called upon to translate Latin Bible (Vulgate)b.
 
Studied with rabbis—hesitant to acceptc.
 
Ends up changing his mind (cites Sirach as Scripture)(see
 Letter to Eustochium
,
A
.
D
. 404)
The “New Testament” Books
1.
 
Dates: Written sometime between
A
.
D
. 50–1002.
 
4 basic categories:a.
 
Gospelsb.
 
Acts (Church History)c.
 
Letters (e.g., Paul, James, Peter, John, Jude)d.
 
Book of Revelation3.
 
“Testament” as “covenant”: Linked to Eucharistic celebration (New Covenant)4.
 
Many attributed to Paul—apparently recognized as “Scripture” early on
“So also our beloved brother Paul wrote to you according to the wisdom given him,
16
speaking of this as he does in allhis letters.
There are some things in them hard to understand 
, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their owndestruction,
 as they do the other scriptures
.” (2 Pet 3:15–16)
The “New Testament” Apocrypha
1.
 
Lost Gospels: Gnostic Gospels2.
 
 Written Later3.
 
 Jesus portrayed in Greek not Jewish terminology4.
 
Condemned by early Church fathers
Debate about the Canon
“We receive also the Apocalypse of John and that of Peter,
though some among us will not have this latter read in thechurch.
 Muratorian Fragment 
 
(
c.
 
A
.
D
. 170 [?])“Peter. . . left one epistle of acknowledged authenticity. Perhaps we can allow that he left a second.
 However, this isdoubtful.
. . John, who left on Gospel. . . also left an epistle of very few lines. Perhaps he also wrote a second and a third.However,
not everyone declares those to be genuine
.””—Origen,
Commentary on John
5.3 (
c.
 
A
.
D
. 228)“[Concerning Peter’s letters]. . .
only one of which I know to be genuine and acknowledged by the ancient elders
. . . [I]nthe salutations at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, has made mention among others of Hermas, to whom thebook called
The Shepherd 
is ascribed, it should be observed that
this too has been disputed by some
, and on theiraccount cannot be placed among the acknowledged books;
while by others it is considered quite indispensable
,especially to those who need instruction in the elements of the faith. Hence, as we know,
it has been publicly read inchurches
, and I have found that some of the most ancient writers used it.”—Eusebius,
 Ecclesiastical History
3.3.3–6(
c.
 
A
.
D
. 324)

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