DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 3
During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fittedturbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraftengine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) todemonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internalcombustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude
.Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1920s before World War II,although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. The primarypurpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplanecould fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraftsuch as the Fw 190D, B-17 Flying Fortress, and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers toincrease high altitude engine power.
2.2 PRODUCTION AUTOMOBILES:
The first turbocharged diesel truck was produced by SchweizerMaschinenfabrik Saurer (Swiss Machine Works Saurer) in 1938.The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors in 1962.The Y-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire was fitted with a Garrett Air search turbocharger andthe Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder with a TRW turbocharger. At the Paris auto show in1974, during the height of the oil crisis, Porsche introduced the 911 Turbo
the world’s first
production sports car with an exhaust turbocharger and pressure regulator. This was madepossible by the introduction of a waste gate to direct excess exhaust gasses away from theexhaust turbine. The world's first production turbo diesel automobiles were the Garrett-turbocharged Mercedes 300SD and the Peugeot 604, both introduced in 1978. Today, mostautomotive diesels are turbocharged.1962 Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire1962 Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder1973 BMW 2002 Turbo1974 Porsche 911 Turbo1978 Buick Regal1978 Saab 991978 Peugeot 604 turbo diesel1978 Mercedes-Benz 300SD turbo diesel (United States/Canada)1979 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV 2000 Turbo delta1980 Mitsubishi Lancer GT Turbo1980 Pontiac Firebird