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Turbochargers,Final Report of the Seminar

Turbochargers,Final Report of the Seminar

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Published by: Muddukrishna C Shetty on Mar 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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TURBOCHARGERS
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 1
1. INTODUCTION
 A naturally-aspirated engine
 
is one common type reciprocating piston I.Cengine that depends solely on atmospheric pressure to counter the partial vacuum in theinduction tract to draw in combustion air. In a naturally aspirated engine; air for combustionor an air/fuel mixture is drawn into the engines cylinders by atmospheric pressure actingagainst a partial vacuum that occurs as the piston travels downwards toward bottom deadcentre during the induction stroke. Due to restriction at intake track, a small pressure dropoccurs as air is drawn in, resulting in a volumetric efficiency of less than 100 percent - and aless than complete air charge in the cylinder.A supercharger
 
is an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustionengine . The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than wouldbe available in a naturally-aspirated engine, which allows more fuel to be provided and morework to be done per cycle, increasing the power output of the engine. A supercharger can bepowered mechanically by a belt, gear, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. Itcan also be powered by an exhaust gas turbine. A turbine-driven supercharger is known as aturbocharger.Figure 1: General setup of supercharger is shown.A turbocharger
 
is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of anengine. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. The turbine
 
TURBOCHARGERS
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 2
converts exhaust heat to rotational force, which is in turn used to drive the compressor. Thecompressor draws in ambient air and pumps it in to the intake manifold at increased pressure,resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The pressure inthe atmosphere is no more than 1atm ,there ultimately will be a limit to the pressuredifference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the combustionchamber. Because the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is enteringthe cylinder, a greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressureincreases. The additional air flow makes it possible to maintain the combustion chamberpressure and fuel/air load even at high engine revolution speeds, increasing the power andtorque output of the engine. The increase in the inlet pressure of air by any means is called asboost.Figure 2: General setup of turbochargeris shown.1 Compressor Inlet
 
2 Compressor Discharge3 Charge air cooler (CAC)4 Intake Valve5 Exhaust Valve6 Turbine Inlet7 Turbine Discharge
2. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi. His patentfor a turbocharger was applied for use in 1905. Diesel ships and locomotives withturbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.
 
2.1 AVIATION:
 
TURBOCHARGERS
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page 3
During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fittedturbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraftengine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) todemonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internalcombustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude
.Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1920s before World War II,although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. The primarypurpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplanecould fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraftsuch as the Fw 190D, B-17 Flying Fortress, and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers toincrease high altitude engine power.
 
2.2 PRODUCTION AUTOMOBILES:
 
The first turbocharged diesel truck was produced by SchweizerMaschinenfabrik Saurer (Swiss Machine Works Saurer) in 1938.The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors in 1962.The Y-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire was fitted with a Garrett Air search turbocharger andthe Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder with a TRW turbocharger. At the Paris auto show in1974, during the height of the oil crisis, Porsche introduced the 911 Turbo
 – 
 
the world’s first
production sports car with an exhaust turbocharger and pressure regulator. This was madepossible by the introduction of a waste gate to direct excess exhaust gasses away from theexhaust turbine. The world's first production turbo diesel automobiles were the Garrett-turbocharged Mercedes 300SD and the Peugeot 604, both introduced in 1978. Today, mostautomotive diesels are turbocharged.1962 Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire1962 Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder1973 BMW 2002 Turbo1974 Porsche 911 Turbo1978 Buick Regal1978 Saab 991978 Peugeot 604 turbo diesel1978 Mercedes-Benz 300SD turbo diesel (United States/Canada)1979 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV 2000 Turbo delta1980 Mitsubishi Lancer GT Turbo1980 Pontiac Firebird

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