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Tick Management Handbook

Tick Management Handbook

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An expert on deer ticks says scientists are bracing for what could be a bumper crop of the disease-carrying blood suckers this year. But it's one thing that can't be blamed on the unusually warm weather.
An expert on deer ticks says scientists are bracing for what could be a bumper crop of the disease-carrying blood suckers this year. But it's one thing that can't be blamed on the unusually warm weather.

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Published by: New England Public Radio on Mar 05, 2012
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01/16/2013

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Tick Management Handbook
An integrated guide forhomeowners, pest controloperators, and public healthof 
cials for the prevention of tick-associated diseaseRevised Edition
Prepared by:
Kirby C. Stafford III, Ph.D.
Vice Director, Chief EntomologistConnecticut AgriculturalExperiment Station, New Haven
Support for printing this revised edition provided by
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationThe Connecticut General Assembly
Bulletin No. 1010
 
Stafford The Connecticut Agricultural Experimentation StationBulletin No. 1010
Acknowledgements
Thanks are given to Dr. Joseph Piesman (CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado), Dr. Peter J. Krause (University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut), Carol Lemmon (CAES, retired), Bradford Robinson(Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Pesticide Management Division), Judith Nelson,Director (retired), and the staff of the Westport Weston Health District (CT), Dr. Terry Schulze (NJ), Dr.Gary Maupin (CDC, retired), and Drs. Louis A. Magnarelli and John F. Anderson (CAES) for reviewingparts or all of the original handbook. Their comments and suggestions were sincerely appreciated. Thanksare also extended to Vickie Bomba-Lewandoski (CAES) for publication and printing assistance, Heidi Stuber(CAES) for her work in taking some of the tick photographs for the handbook, and Himanshu Bharadwaj forgraphic assistance on the author’s tick life cycle diagrams. Dr. Louis A. Magnarelli also provided invaluableeditorial and review comments for this revised edition. Sincere thanks are given to the companies, governmentorganizations, foundations, and individuals for permission to use their photographs or illustrations and federalgovernment sources are also gratefully acknowledged. This handbook would be incomplete without theircontributions.
Photo Credits
Many of the pictures and illustrations in the handbook are those of the author or staff at The ConnecticutAgricultural Experiment Station (CAES). All of the pictures are numbered and source credits provided below.Some sources also are otherwise noted in captions. Requests for use of photographs and illustrations belongingto the author and CAES may be directed to the author. Permission to use any other material must be obtainedfrom the original source.P
zer Central Research (Groton Point Road, Groton, CT): 1, 7, 16, 17, 22, 27, 30, 31, 47, 49, 51, 53-54, 65-68, 104, 105.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 15, 32, 38, 40, 41, 44, 55, 57-58, 60-63, maps of Lyme diseaseand Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases.United States Department of Agriculture: cover (tick), tick morphology
gure (adapted from Strickland et al.1976), 75.American Lyme Disease Foundation (Somers, NY): 10, 11, 23, 97.Barnstable County Cooperative Extension (Massachusetts): 76.Vector-borne Disease Laboratory, Maine Medical Center Research Institute (Portland, ME): 37.United Industries (Spectrum Brands): 72.Ric Felton (Goshen, CT;www.semguy.com): 14.Jim Occi (Cranford, NJ): 12, 45, 101.Lynne Rhodes (Old Saybrook, CT): 48, 50, 52.Steven A. Levy, DMV (Durham, CT): 64.CAES: Jeffrey S. Ward, 6; Paul Gough, 74; Uma Ramakrishnan, 90-91; Jeffrey Fengler, 98;Heidi Stuber, 24-26, 28-29, 33-36, 39, 42-43, 46; Anuja Bharadwaj, 112, 113; Kirby Stafford, cover(landscape), 2-5, 8-9, 13, 18-21, 56, 58-59, 69-71, 73, 77-89, 92-96, 99-100, 102-103, 106-111, 114.
Disclaimer
Mention of a product or company is for informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsementby The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
Published Fall 2007
©
2007 The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
 
Bulletin No. 1010Stafford The Connecticut Agricultural Experimentation Station
Table of ContentsIntroduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ticks of the Northeastern United States
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Tick biology and behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Tick morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6How a tick feeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Tick sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Blacklegged tick,
 Ixodes scapularis
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9American dog tick,
 Dermacentor variabilis
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Lone star tick,
 Amblyomma americanum
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Other ticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Tick-Associated Diseases
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Lyme disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Southern tick-associated rash illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Human babesiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Human granulocytic anaplasmosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Human monocytic ehrlichiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Rocky Mountain spotted fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Tick paralysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Tularemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Powassan encephalitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Tick-borne relapsing fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Colorado tick fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Bartonella infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Lyme disease in companion animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Personal Protection
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Tick bite prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Tick removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Topically applied insect repellents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Human Lyme disease vaccine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Integrated Tick Management
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Landscape management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Organic land care practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Environmentally friendly lawns and backyard wildlife programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Management of host animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Prevention of tick-associated disease in companion animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Area-wide Chemical Control of Ticks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Acaricides used for tick control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Homeowner application of acaricides for tick control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Commercial application of acaricides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66An acaricide primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Additional sources of information about pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Biological Control of Ticks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Selected Bibliography and References
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

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