Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressureandvacuum.Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gaugesA manometer is apressuremeasuring instrument,usually limited to measuringpressures near to atmospheric. It is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostaticinstruments.A vacuum gauge is used to measure thepressurein avacuum,which is broadly dividedinto two categories: high and low vacuum (and sometimesultra-high vacuum). Many of thedifferent techniques used to measure these categories have an overlap at some point in thepressure range. By combining several different types of gauge it is possible measure systempressure from 10mbardown to 10e-11 mbar.TheSIunit of pressure is thepascal(abbreviation Pa). Atmospheric pressures areusually stated using its decimal multiple kilopascal (kPa), where 1 kPa is close to 1.0% of Earth'satmospheric pressure at sea level. In meteorologic reports, hPa or mbar are the commonly usedunits (being by definition 1bar= 100 kPa). In vacuum systems, the equivalent unitstorrandmillimeter of mercury(mmHg)are also used, with 1 torr equaling 133.3223684 Pa above anideal vacuum.Other vacuum units occasionally encountered in the literature includemicrometersof mercury, thebarometricscale, or as a percentage of atmospheric pressurein bars oratmospheres.Low vacuum is measured in the United States also ininches of mercury(inHg) belowatmospheric pressure. "Below atmospheric" means that the absolute pressure is equal to theatmospheric pressure (29.92 inHg) minus the vacuum pressure in inches of mercury. (This iseffectively a gauge pressure.)Thus a vacuum of 26 inHg is equivalent to an absolute pressure of
29.92 inHg − 26 inHg = 3.92 inHg.
BOURDEN TUBE TYPE PRESSURE GUAGE
A Bourdon gauge uses a coiled tube which as it expands due to pressure increase causes arotationof an arm connected to the tube.A combination pressure and vacuum gauge (case and viewing glass removed)Indicator Side with card and dial Mechanical Side with Bourdon tubeThe pressure sensing element is a closed coiled tube connected to the chamber or pipe in whichpressure is to be sensed. As the gauge pressure increases the tube will tend to uncoil, while areduced gauge pressure will cause the tube to coil more tightly. This motion is transferredthrough alinkageto ageartrain connected to an indicating needle. The needle is presented infront of a card face inscribed with the pressure indications associated with particular needledeflections. In a barometer, the Bourdon tube is sealed at both ends and the absolute pressure of the ambient atmosphere is sensed. Differential Bourdon gauges use two Bourdon tubes and amechanical linkage that compares the readings.In the following pictures the transparent cover face has been removed and the mechanismremoved from the case. This particular gauge is a combination vacuum and pressure gauge usedfor automotive diagnosis: