substrate is usually much smaller than the enzyme, and relatively few of theenzyme’s amino acids make up the active site.A certain compound can be a substrate for s number of different enzymesthat catalyze different reactions, so the fate of a compound depends on theenzymes that acts upon it. Glucose 6-photphate, a molecule that is important incell metabolism, can be acted upon by at least four different enzymes, and eachreaction will yield a different product.
Factors influence enzyme activity.
Several factors influence the activity ò enzyme. The more important aretemperature, pH, substrate concentration, and presence or absence of inhibitors.The rate of most chemical reactions increases as the temperature increases.Molecules move more slowly at lower temperatures than at higher temperaturesand so may not have enough energy to cause s chemical reaction. For enzymaticreactions, however, elevation beyond a certain temperature drastically reducesthe rate of reaction. This decrease is due to the enzyme’s denaturation, the lost of its characteristic three dimensional structure (tertiary configuration).Denaturation of protein a involves breakage of hydrogen bonds and other noncovalent bonds. As might be expected, denaturation of an enzyme changesthe arrangement of the amino acids in the active site, altering its shape andcausing the enzyme to lose its catalytic ability. In some cases, denaturation is partially or fully reversible. However, if denaturation continues until the enzymehas lost its solubility and coagulates (as with cooked the albumin) the enzymecannot regain its original properties. Enzymes can be denatured by concentratedacids, bases, heavy-metal ions (such as lead, arsenic, or mercury), alcohol, andultraviolet radiation.Most enzymes have an optimum pH at with their activity is characteristicallymaximal. Above or bellow this pH value, enzyme activity, and therefore thereaction rate, declines. When the H
concentration (pH) in the medium ischanged, many of the enzyme’s amino acids are effected and the protein’s three-dimensional structure is altered. Extreme changes in pH can cause denaturation.