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Internal architecture 8086

Internal architecture 8086

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Published by: Amandeep Singh Khera on Mar 06, 2012
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BY:- AMANDEEP REG.11000597
 This project work on microprocessor takes account of INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE OF8086 MICRO PROCESSOR bytaking into concentrationabout all the aspects of 8086.
 The major parts are the
 processing unit 
and the
input and output circuitry 
or I/O andthree sets of parallel linescalled
connecting theseparts together. The threebuses are called
data bus
control bus
 The memory section usuallyconsists of RAM and ROM. Itmay also havemagnetic floppydisks, magnetic hard disks orlaser option disks. Memory hastwopurposes. The first purposeis to store the binary codes forthe sequence of instructionsyou want thecomputer to carryout. Thesecond purpose of the memoryis to store thebinary-codeddata with which the computeris going to be working.
 The input/output or I/O sectionallows the computer to take indata from theoutside world or send data tothe outside world. Peripheralssuch as keyboards, videodisplay terminals, printers andmodems are connected to theI/O section. These allow theuser and the computer tocommunicate with each other. The actual physical devicesusedto interface the computerbuses to external systems areoften called
Central Processing Unit
 The Central Processing unit orCPU controls the operation of the computer. Itfetches the binary-codedinstructions from memory,decodes the instructions into aseriesof simple actions and carriesout these instructions. The CPUcontains an
arithmetic andlogic unit 
or ALU which canperform arithmetical andlogical calculations like add,subtract, AND, OR, etc., TheCPU also contains an
which is used to holdthe address of the nextinstruction to be fetched fromthe memory, general purposeregisters which are used for
temporary storage of binarydata, and circuitry whichgenerates and the control bussignals.
Address Bus
 The address bus consists of 16,20, 24 or more parallel signallines. On these linesthe CPUsends out the address of thememory location that is to bewritten to or readfrom. Thenumber of memory locationsthat the CPU can address isdetermined by thenumber of address lines. If the CPU hasNaddress lines then it candirectly address 2Nmemorylocations. For example, a CPUwith 16 address lines canaddress 216 or 65,536memory locations.
Data Bus
 The data bus consists of 8, 16,32 or more parallel signallines. The data bus linesare
bi- direct ional
Control Bus
 The control bus consists of 4 -10 parallel signal lines. TheCPU sends out signalson thecontrol bus to enable theoutputs of addressed memorydevices or port devices.Typicalcontrol bus signalsare
memory write
I/O read
, and
I/O write
. Toread a byte of data from amemory location, for example,the CPU sends out theaddressof the desired byte onthe address bus and thensends out a memory readsignal on thecontrol bus. Thememory read signal enablesthe addressed memory deviceto output thebyte of data onthe data bus where it is readby the CPU.
Hardware, Software, andFirmware
When working aroundcomputers you hear the termshardware, softwareandfirmware.
H ardware
is thename given to the physicaldevices and circuitry of thecomputer.
S of tware
refersto the programs written for thecomputer.
Fir mware
is thetermgiven to the programsstored in ROMs or in otherdevices which keep theirstoredinformation when thepower is turned off.
What is a Microprocessor ?
 The entire CPU with timing andcontrol functions on a singlechip is knownasMicroprocessor. Therefore aMicroprocessor or MPU is anintegrated circuit thatcontainsmany processingcapabilities of a largecomputer.
Microprocessor Evolution
A common way of categorizingis by the number of bits thattheir ALU can workwith at atime. A Microprocessor with a4 - bit ALU will be referred toas a 4-bitMicroprocessor,regardless of the number of address lines or the number of data bus linesthat it has. Thefirst microprocessor was theIntel 4004 produced in 1971. This 4004 was a4 - bit device
intended to be used with someother devices in making acalculator .Somelogicdesigners, however, saw thatthis device could be used toreplace PC boards fullofcombinationaland sequentiallogic devices. Also, the abilityto change the function of asystem by just changing theprogramming, rather thanredesigning the hardware, isveryappealing. It was thesefactors that pushed theevolution of microprocessors.In 1972Intel come out with the8008 which was capable of working with 8-bitwords. In1974 Intel announced the8080 which had a much largerinstruction set than8008. The8080 is referred to as asecond-generationmicroprocessor.Soon after Intel produced8080, Motorola came out withMC 6800, another 8-bitgeneralpurpose CPU. Some of theother competitors were theMOS technology 6502 andtheZilog Z80. The 16-bitmicroprocessors entered themarketplace in the late 1970sandearly 1980s. Then camethe 32-bit processors.
The INTEL 8086MicroprocessorIntroduction
 The 8086 was the first 16-bitMicroprocessor to beintroduced by IntelCorporation.It is designed to be upwardlycompatible with the older8080/8085 series of8-bitmicroprocessors. The upwardcompatibility allows programswritten for the8080/8085 to beeasily converted to run on the8086. The word 16-bit means that itsarithmetic logical unit, internalregisters, and mostof itsinstructions are designed towork with 16-bit binary words. The 8086 has a 16-bitdata bus,so it can read data form orwrite data to memory andports either 16-bits or 8-bits ata time. The 8086 has a 20-bitaddress bus, so it can addressany one of220 or1,048,576memorylocations. Each of the1,048,576 memory addressesof the 8086represents a byte-wide location. Words will bestored in two consecutivememorylocations. If the firstbyte of a word is at an evenaddress, the 8086 can read theentireword in one operation. If the first byte of the word is atan odd address, the 8086 willreadthe first byte of the wordin one operation, and thesecond byte in anotheroperation.

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