temporary storage of binarydata, and circuitry whichgenerates and the control bussignals.
The address bus consists of 16,20, 24 or more parallel signallines. On these linesthe CPUsends out the address of thememory location that is to bewritten to or readfrom. Thenumber of memory locationsthat the CPU can address isdetermined by thenumber of address lines. If the CPU hasNaddress lines then it candirectly address 2Nmemorylocations. For example, a CPUwith 16 address lines canaddress 216 or 65,536memory locations.
The data bus consists of 8, 16,32 or more parallel signallines. The data bus linesare
bi- direct ional
The control bus consists of 4 -10 parallel signal lines. TheCPU sends out signalson thecontrol bus to enable theoutputs of addressed memorydevices or port devices.Typicalcontrol bus signalsare
. Toread a byte of data from amemory location, for example,the CPU sends out theaddressof the desired byte onthe address bus and thensends out a memory readsignal on thecontrol bus. Thememory read signal enablesthe addressed memory deviceto output thebyte of data onthe data bus where it is readby the CPU.
Hardware, Software, andFirmware
When working aroundcomputers you hear the termshardware, softwareandfirmware.
is thename given to the physicaldevices and circuitry of thecomputer.
S of tware
refersto the programs written for thecomputer.
is thetermgiven to the programsstored in ROMs or in otherdevices which keep theirstoredinformation when thepower is turned off.
What is a Microprocessor ?
The entire CPU with timing andcontrol functions on a singlechip is knownasMicroprocessor. Therefore aMicroprocessor or MPU is anintegrated circuit thatcontainsmany processingcapabilities of a largecomputer.
A common way of categorizingis by the number of bits thattheir ALU can workwith at atime. A Microprocessor with a4 - bit ALU will be referred toas a 4-bitMicroprocessor,regardless of the number of address lines or the number of data bus linesthat it has. Thefirst microprocessor was theIntel 4004 produced in 1971. This 4004 was a4 - bit device